For women, communication is a way to get closer, seek understanding and find equality or symmetry. Much of this communication takes place using nonverbal cues. Nonverbal communication is integral to how we communicate. But each gender uses different nonverbal cues when communicating which cause conflicts for both sexes when they communicate with each
Manners expressing politeness ” Good manners will open doors that the best education cannot.” (Clarence Thomas) A human-being is distinguished from brutes not on account of his intelligence alone but also on account of his behavior and manners. Expressing politeness means to be humble, courteous, respectful and well-cultured social behavior. A man or women, above everything else, is esteemed and distinguished on account of his or her good manners. Being polite also means being aware of and respecting the feelings of other people. We may not always notice politeness
Manners expressing politeness ” Good manners will open doors that the best education cannot.” (Clarence Thomas) A human-being is distinguished from brutes not on account of his intelligence alone but also on account of his behavior and manners. Expressing politeness means to be humble, courteous, respectful and well-cultured social behavior. A man or women, above everything else, is esteemed and distinguished on account of his or her good manners. Being polite also means being aware of and respecting the feelings of other people. We may not always notice politeness but we
These are: Don 't impose, Give the receiver options, Make the receiver feel good. She expressed that these are principal in great cooperation. By not holding fast to these maxims, a speaker is said to be “flouting the maxims." GOFFMAN (1976): explores gender and discourse as an organizing component of social interaction contributed much in the area of gender and language. Goffman examined over 500 advertisements in order to find general patterns in stereotypical gender representation, which he placed into five categories: Relative Size: Goffman contends that social circumstance is communicated through the relative size of the persons in the commercials, with men demonstrating their prevalence through their size and stature.
Kramarae (1981:145), on the other hand, states that ‘men specialize in instrumental or task behaviours and women specialize in expressive or social activities’. Society’s sex-stereotyping of jobs influence girls’ behaviour and expectations, and encourage positive attitude towards language learning while society’s division of tasks and assumptions according to sex is transferred to boys and girls through formal and informal instruction. This alliance between society-education may explain boys’ and girls’ different concerns, attitudes and expectations. Girls’ communicative skills are enhanced if not maximised because of their expected patterns of interaction. Consequently, girls may develop a liking for languages.
In accord with their greater desire for intimacy, women are generally more tolerant of close bodily proximity than men; in fact, men are more likely to perceive close proximity as a sign of aggressive or confrontational intent. Nevertheless, different cultures have different tolerances for bodily proximity, and these differences often exceed the difference between genders. Touching Since men are more likely than women to associate touching with sexual intentions, heterosexual men are less likely to use touch during conversation with other men. Women, on the other hand, are far less reticent about touching other women because they also use touching as an expression of friendship or sympathy. Here I referred as men and women, it mostly represent the actual gender.
Females score significantly more than males on the Emotional Quotient (EQ) (Baron-Cohen &Wheelright, 2004) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) (Davis, 1980). Socialization and culture play an important role in the development of empathy according to Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright, (2004) Eisenberg and Lennon (1983) proposed that biases in self-report scales could influence the observed gender differences. These differences may be because men may be unwilling to report empathic encounters due to social anticipations. When a tool is thought to measure s empathy, it may induce responses affected by an individual’s classificationto gender stereotypes (Michalska, Kinzler, &Decety., 2013). One of the most common stereotypes in society is that females are more considerate and empathetic than males (Rueckert, 2011).
The evidence suggests that you cannot predict an individual's communication style from their gender: there is too much overlap between men and women, and too much variation within each group. Of course there are women who fit the generalizations, but there are also many who do not. The women MP's, police officers, soldiers, salon-owners, are too numerous to be dismissed as merely marginal exceptions. What makes the difference in choosing a man or a woman as a MP's and must be underlined is the women's disposition to behave differently from men. Women MPs do not stick to the rules because they are timid conformists: they do it to counter the perception that they are interlopers.
Men often apply abusive verbal expressions and elements of violence to become worth of respect in the other’s eyes (Anderson, 1994). Women usually deal with some different types of issues, thus, the methods can also differ. Their conflicts are mainly based on assessments of appearances or attempts to influence other people’s opinions about women’s behavior. Thus, the ways of becoming respected by others are based mainly on the attractive appearance; however, we would better not to underestimate their intellectual abilities which can also be a powerful source of high appreciation and admiration. Apart from that, there are less appropriate ways of gaining respect among other females, namely, gossips.
Background of the study “Politeness” is treated as an important factor in any conversation. Brown and Levinson (1987) researched and concluded that the aim of politeness strategies is to save “face” which is defined as “the public self image that every member wants to claim for himself”. In conversation, participants can have acts which in some way threaten the 'face ' or self-esteem of another person (called Face-threatening acts by Brown & Levinson) so politeness strategies tend to avoid these threatening acts. According to researchers, the strategies include bald on record, off record-indirect, positive and negative. Applying these strategy helps to maintain interaction between hearers and speakers well.