Postmodernism lies precisely at the level of perception and experience, it also refers to a cultural phenomenon that reflects profound changes in society and culture within which it is strongly rooted. Further, in postmodernism, Feminist English Literature is a spectrum of many colours and shades like soft, prominent and strident. The voices emanating therefore vary from the traditional but conscious of their selves to exclusively self seeking with a seeming vengeance. Accordingly, Postmodernism Feminist literature is fully committed to accommodating the voices of the eccentric and the marginalized. Hence, Herein lays the close connection between feminism and postmodernism.
In her words: “To speak of masculinities is to speak about gender relations. […] They can be defined as the patterns of practice by which people (both men and women, though predominantly men) engage that position.”
In the play of Shakespeare entitled Macbeth, we have cited different philosophies that were shown in the play itself. Some of this includes feminism, opportunism, personalism, and instrumentalism and existentialism According to the Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, Feminism is a range of , ideologies, political movements and social movements that has a single goal: to establish, define, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social rights for women that is equivalent to those that men’s have. This includes the campaign on giving same opportunities to both men and women. Opportunism is the conscious practice and policy of taking advantage of situations with regard for principles, or with what the aftermath are for others. Opportunist actions are practical actions guided primarily by self-interested reasons.
Introduction: “Our language is the reflection of ourselves. A language is an exact reflection of the character and growth of its speakers.” Those who access to the great potential of literature and language attain widespread liberation and selfhood. This reward allows people to formulate and trigger defiance from the conscious subjugation they have fallen subject to. Language also however, can be used as a tool of power itself whether it be by oppressive reigning powers or a moral code. Both these concepts reveal the true, exceptional and uncontainable power of language, the underlying notion in many highly accredited works of literature.
The relationship between gender and dailiness enables us to examine its the very foundation. Every entity is gendered, thereby making gender an intrinsic part of dailiness. Gender is commonly divided into two categories – male and female, and the characteristics and stereotypes stemming from both the genders are classified masculine and feminine respectively. An entity being gendered refers to it being kept for the exclusive use of females or males, or rather being prescribed certain characteristics thar make it more “feminine” or “masculine” in nature. As Scott states, “the rules of social interaction are gendered” where social interaction is the major entity.
Affinity, Sarah Waters Upon reading the extract from Affinity by Sarah Waters I found the gender roles and the contrast between the characters interesting, and therefore I have chosen to critically analyse the extract through the lenses of patriarchal figures and feminism. I wish to highlight certain parts of the extract where I feel these concepts were brought to the fore in an intriguing way. Patriarchy is a system based on ‘the social position held by a male as head of a household’(Gunne lectures). From the outset of the extract the reader is introduced to the prominent patriarchal figure, Peter Quick. We are immediately made aware of the control he has over the other characters, as Miss Isherwood informs us she ‘had not slept a single night since that night, & it was all because of Peter Quick’(Waters 260).
This argument is in line with what Cameron argues. Cameron (1998b, pp. 280–1) also states that Men and women are members of cultures in which a large amount of discourse about gender is constantly circulating. They do not only learn, and then mechanically reproduce, ways of speaking ‘appropriate’ to their own sex; they learn a much broader set of gendered meanings that attach in rather complex ways to different ways of speaking, and they produce their own behavior in the light of these meanings. It therefore can be simply said that according to Cameron, men and women have their own ways in communicating with others together with their belief of what men and women are supposed to do.
Because of the books’ powerful female characters, calls for revolution of women were widespread and on the rise. The Woman Warrior and A Doll’s House compare because their authors made female characters throughout both works challenge the norms of society through feminism, identity, and sexism. First and foremost, Ibsen tackles women 's rights as a matter of importance in A Doll’s House, but it was not intentional. He successfully created the dramatic argument that continues to this day; that of feminism. “Ibsen’s work and its uses demonstrate the full range of lived experience that defined modern rebellion and it reminds us that theatre and drama played a central role in making that rebellion visible and available to a wide public”(Kelly 12).
Through mixing and matching all these possible combinations, there will be infinite possibilities to describe how one individual understands the world they live in. For structuralists, such as Ferdinand de Sasussure, they argue that language is one of the key factors that constitute our reality (Storey, 1994). Language helps shape, organize, influence, and construct our reality. It does not simply reflect the material reality but it also imposes a certain order on how the world should be seen and experienced. Language can then be treated as the most powerful representational medium available to humans that enables the creation and development of discourses such as sex and sexuality (Cameron and Kulick, 2003).
This sounds inexplicable suggesting a sort of “male social cohesion”. Feminist consciousness has certainly given an ardour and excitement to literary studies. A reasonably new perception of women in literature and the works by women writers have unveiled some of the prejudices at work in their traditional approaches to literature hitherto dominated by masculine perspective. A woman’s experiences of life as a member of a gender biased society formulate her psyche. Moreover, she is bound by certain other factors such as her individual circumstances, societies expectations related to age, creed, class, race, etc.