Gender identity is a controversial concept that has been discussed in terms of several perceptions such as psychological, social and political point of views. In consequence, it acquires different definitions and interpretations. However, in feminist works, using the feminist approach seems to be imperative because of its validity in analyzing the psychology of female heroines, as well as the psychology of female writers. This thesis attempts to clarify gender identity thought reading three postmodern gothic novels written by Angela Carter –a British contemporary writer. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to read the concept of gender identity in the terms of postmodern principles; it argues that Angela Carter in her postmodern gothic novels The
Feminism is one of the critical and theoretical studies that are reshaping literary studies. Many feminist theories have been developed in different places and different periods of time. Each of these theories and studies criticize the way that the economic, political or traditional systems deal with women’s rights. Some of the feminist perspectives protest against the distinction and discrimination against women in modern society (Johnson 57). In this paper I will concentrate on how some feminist theories approach objectification by reviewing many different definitions of objectification; second I will explain the wrong thing about objectification and then what is ok about to see if they all those feminist critics agree about the idea of objectification.
Arlene Stein’s book “Sex and Sensibility” is a literary masterpiece that develops the framework of content that was essential towards explaining the rise of the lesbian movement; though solid in its message, Stein’s bias is recognized throughout the text, she was cognizant of issues and factors that affected the movement but she fails to piece together the entire spectrum. Stein captures three fundamental factors displayed throughout the text: (1). The recognition of new sexual identities and their associated orientations (2). The separation of the Feminist and Lesbianist movements, and (3). The differentiation of the “Old Gay” and “New Gay”lesbian identities.
Female sexuality and its representation has been the primary concern of this research while applying each of the approaches to proves that du Maurier’s work builds on Jane Eyre but the portrayal it grants to feminine sexuality and identity renders her work a narrative of modernity on its own. Several critics have analyzed the intertexuality between the two novels. However, this study builds what has been said before to dwell on the not yet exhausted topic of feminine sexuality. Nungesser is one of the critics who have presented a comparison between the novels to conclude that both works bring an air of freshness and novelty to the traditional female Gothic plot, the novel of development and the fairy-tale narratives. Nonetheless, Nungesser overlooks to precise subject of female sexuality which happens to be submerged in Jane Eyre’s concern with presenting a financial independent heroine whom in spite of what she suffered prefers to spend the rest of her days as a mere angel of the house.
On the level of characters, Lacan’s theory about feminine sexuality and the symbolic order has been deployed demonstrating that the phallus maintains a firm hold over Jane Eyre but lapses into a state of subversion in Rebecca due to Jane’s relinquishing of her subjectivity and sexuality whereas the narrator keeps them . Female sexuality embodied in Bertha Mason is depicted as deviant and cast out of the symbolic order since Bertha is deprived of speech. Building on Lacan’s psychosexual model, Bertha has been analyzed as the mirror image of Jane. Indeed, in Jane’s encounters with Bertha the mirror has been a crucial factor especially in the night before Jane’s wedding. In addition, it is in the imaginary stage that this subject is handed down the necessary knowledge, sexual knowledge.
As a result of that, as it has been observed by some scholars, she is a problematic character. Her discourse is quite limited and her arguments lack sometimes a cogent defence of women. Nevertheless, she still remains one of the characters closest to being a proto-feminist in medieval literature, especially when written by a male author. One can then argue that the Wife of Bath is a problematic and paradoxical protofeminist figure, who through her discourse shows the limits and restrictions imposed by a medieval misogynist society on
The theme of sex scandal goes along with women's morality and sensuality because it also went against the prior conservative social expectations and beliefs for women. This theme started to become common in Victorian Literature. Apart from the themes, the novel is based on the point of view of the first person narrator. In Jane Eyre, we access the story through the perspective of Jane herself. Thus, the novel employs first person narration, as opposed to third person, which is often
As Helen Cixous suggests, Gilman “breaks up truth with laughter.” (11) Although it was written hundred years ago yet it has so much relevance in the contemporary world. By strongly criticizing the culture and tradition of outside world, Gilman has brought this imaginary world with a feminist perspective. She has presented in her novel that, gender difference, suppression and oppression of women, sexual harassment, rape, will continue throughout the years. Gilman’s works are strongly embedded and connected with women like Women and Economics, Concerning Children, The home: Its work and Influence and many more. Herland depicts the breakdown of isolated society and expresses the changed ideas and the conflict between the outside world and their world.
This situation has deprived them of the chance of expressing their experiences in their mother languages and the requisite to write in a different language, within the boundaries of different linguistic and stylistic systems, which has lead to misrepresentation of their experiences and perspectives. Gayatri Spivak in her famous essay ‘The Politics of Translation’ (1993), stresses that the interest of the West to the third world feminist writers has resulted in the appropriation and misrepresentation of Third World women’s writings. She states the importance of translating these women’s work from their mother languages in order to be able to reflect their individual experiences and comments ‘if you are interested in talking about the
Literature has always been a handy tool in exploring the gender relations and several differences. Humanist feminist criticism objects to the exclusion of women from these definitions because they tend towards an inaccurate account of the subjectivity of women rather than a historically reconstructed ideology. Today re-reading of literature assumes an important aspect of any critical project for it would help in the reconstitution of the idea of female subjectivity. Thus a more meaningful subject for literary writings focuses on the idea of psychic fragmentation of the weaker sex rather than on the theme of social oppression which assumes a secondary position. Psychotic rupture is perhaps the worst and most regressive aspect of female subjectivity.