Parents’ Perception on Gender Spectrum. In a society that is negatively rich with gender biases and stereotypes, children eventually resort in adopting gender roles which does not necessarily give fair perception to both sexes. Children who are exposed to both internal and external factors shape their attitudes and behaviors towards traditional gender roles as they move through stages of adolescence and ultimately in adulthood. Witt (1997) argued that these attitudes, character, and behaviors are learned at firstly at home which are then heightened by the school experience, child’s friends or peers, and television viewing and other external factors after social bonds are formed outside a family setting. However, it is primarily the family setting that strongly influences the child’s gender role development.
According to “Gender Roles and its Effect on Today’s Society” by Susan Lkegwu, gender roles are a “learn[ed] behavior by a person as appropriate to their gender, determined by the prevailing culture norms”. Boys were raised to be providers, stoic, uncompromising, and demanding. While girls were raised to be submissive, passive and to cater to a man’s needs. However, things have changed, gender roles expectation has lowered in family, economically, and socially. Most married couple have an understanding what their role is in a relationship.
These gender roles evolve from standards put in place by society. What do theorists say about socialization and gender in child development? One of the major theories that are beneficial in learning about gender role development is the Social Learning Theory. According to behaviorist, Bandura, children first learn gender roles by observing behaviors of an adult of the same sex, imitating said adult (Bandura, 1977). Then, the surrounding adult will respond either with positive or negative reinforcement (Bandura, 1977).
Males and females have biological differences, it is life experience that reinforces or contradicts those differences, however, they are not really as different as most perceive them to be, this fact lies in differential socialization, which claims that males and females are taught and influenced different appropriate behaviours for their gender by their first teacher and caregiver, their parents (Burn, Aboud, & Moyles 2000). At a young age, boys and girls spend most of their time in their home with their families and look up to their parents for guidance. Through observation of particular parental behaviors in the context of their family, children learn that certain actions may be drawn on as symbolic markers of gender (Cunningham, 2001). The parents are also the one that provides children with their first lessons about gender, one way that parents influence children’s gender development is through the role modeling and encouragement of different behaviors and activities in sons and daughters (Leaper, 2013). According to Bussey and Bandura (1999), parents also play an active role in setting the course of their children 's gender development by structuring, channeling, modeling, labeling, and reacting evaluatively to gender-linked conduct.
Being pressured into conventional roles today is less common than back in the 40’s and 50’s when society had nothing but conforming roles for men and women in society. examples of this come from how men and women were brought up, culture and media. If it were not for these three factors gender roles would be farfetched. But unfortunately, there is still this pressure of gender roles and one way or another everyone has to make the decision of whoever they want to be and live with those roles. In this essay culture, media and how both men and women being raised affect gender roles and socialization.
From the moment we are born, our lives are shaped by our biological identity that is sex, which later on, is influenced by an unlimited number of social, cultural, environment and psychological forces. Even when we reach adulthood, these forces are still prevalent. Very often without awareness, the behaviours have been strongly influenced by gender role expectations of a culture. By the time we reached adolescence our concept of gender identity and sexual orientation is entrenched. The social roles and behaviours associated with both sex are due to their cultural awareness and the way they are brought up.
Gender socialization and gender roles have always existed in society. When analyzing gender roles and their coming of age in the stories “Boys and Girls” by Alice Munro and “A&P” by John Updike, they are not always equal or consistent when comparing cultures; however, the expectations for males and females are often times defined by the community they reside in. Another way gender stereotypes are produced is through media such as television shows and movies. Media tends to have two kinds of gender tropes that show the ideal types of characteristics each gender is supposed to have. Masculinity tropes consist of having expectations of what a man should be, such as brave and diligent, and that men who have these features are considered real men.
In society, there are many gender stereotypes. Women are seen only to be capable of being housewives and men are expected to act a certain way due to their gender. Men are supposed to act tough or behave in a way to show their masculinity. Therefore, the central issue in society is that boys and young men face is that they will be taught to do the same thing older men do so they can be just like them. There are three sources that prove this problem, one being an essay, another an excerpt, and the last in a column in a newspaper.
Parents don’t choose whether they produce a girl or a boy, but they choose to make them real ladies or gentlemen (Sandra Bartky). When children are born, they don’t know the difference between both genders, but with parents showing them the differences in every aspect of life, they end up being totally different. Parents thinks it is their duty to emphasize the gender of child by raising him or her according to the gender typecasts in the society. As a new baby, entering into a world where a lot is expected according to the gender, the only thing you do is to act normally like others whether you like it or not. The strongest influence on gender role development of a child occurs within the family setting, with parents passing on to their children
Educated, married men with full time homemaker wives in the USA are less egalitarian in their views than younger, unmarried, more educated, high status men with full-time employed wives. The labour market participation of women has increased in the past few decades in industrial societies. This development has the potential to influence beliefs about gender roles and the division of labour housework, and child-care. Most of the published studies regarding gender differences in gender-role beliefs have found that women generally hold more egalitarian gender-role beliefs than men Majority, talks are the about feminist movement, have led made efforts to change aspects of society prevailing in gender roles. At last I would like to say that gender and sex are not interchangeable terms, neither are gender development and sexual development