“Man up,” the little boy hears as he whimpers on the bed. This phrase may seem harmless at first glance, but the effects of it are long term. When one thinks of the word “man” alone, thoughts of a muscular, tall, handsome character who has a liking for fighting and a charismatic charm with women surface; note that anything outside of this “box” gives room for insecurities to form. This is one common example of gender stereotypes that exist deep within our society’s foundation. It’s one that can be so detrimental to the formation and understanding of masculinity and manhood.
One of the greatest aspects to how a male is taught to conduct himself is through his personality. Planned Parenthood explains the basic structure that can trap some males through hypermasculinity, “They believe they’re supposed to compete with other men and dominate feminine folks by being aggressive, worldly, sexually experienced, insensitive, physically imposing, ambitious, and demanding”(Planned Parenthood). With more detail, when men are shifted towards this exaggerated way there are many more problems beyond not being themselves. When hypermasculinity takes places there is an increased chance of abuse emotionally and physically towards a women. On the other hand men have a one in six chance of being sexually abused themselves.
Many societies have rested, historically, on assumptions of male superiority. Many societies, historically and now, can be seen as patriarchal – a system of organisation in which men are the dominant gender (2005:312).” Given that it is worth noting that usually there are diverse range of means to maintain gender inequality, it can be direct violence (rape, abuse), institutional discrimination (job segregation) as well as psychological ways (common stereotypes and sexist humour). To illustrate, in modern societies there is still presence of traditional thinking when a woman may be criticised for not being as feminine as a society expects, which leads to confusion and the adjustment of social behaviour or
Socialization and culture play an important role in the development of empathy according to Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright, (2004) Eisenberg and Lennon (1983) proposed that biases in self-report scales could influence the observed gender differences. These differences may be because men may be unwilling to report empathic encounters due to social anticipations. When a tool is thought to measure s empathy, it may induce responses affected by an individual’s classificationto gender stereotypes (Michalska, Kinzler, &Decety., 2013). One of the most common stereotypes in society is that females are more considerate and empathetic than males (Rueckert, 2011). Thus, it is
John Hagan as well as Hagan’s colleagues was of the opinion that a difference in parenting styles as well as the amount of control used to raise boys and girls will intimately result in the socio-cultural gender divergence (Hadjar, Baier, Boehnke & Hagan, 2007:35). According to Anon (2016:1), there is a large difference between males and females when investigating criminal behaviour, males predominantly commit more violent crimes and commit more crime in general. The power control theory presumes that males are given more freedom when being raised, thus they are more likely to take risks and become involved in deviant behaviour (Hadjar et al, 2007:34). In contrast, women experience a stricter upbringing, thus, women take less risks (Hadjar et al, 2007:34).
The roles of genes, hormones and neuromechanisms influence individual to behave aggressively. For example, males with high testosterone levels may be more prone to deal with challenges or obtain/maintain social status and dominance and aggressive responses when provoked because of the need to control. It is not the cause of aggression but is important for its expression. However, the overall gender difference in aggression behavior is small, only males have a higher tendency toward physical aggression than do females.
A society has determined what men and women are good at, actually influences the abilities that different genders can posses, just by stereotyping the roles and cognitive capacities of the gender. The response to counterargument is that yes, there are stereotypes that exist in current society, but the ones the body wired a certain way, it would be very hard for it to change the mapped out by DNA and chromosomes and hormones cognitive abilities. The stereotypes of the society would not be able to change the increased level of testosterone that a woman possesses, which increases her abilities to solve mathematical and spatial problems on a higher level than average man. The same way as the stereotypes would not be able to change the chromosome that one got due to the process of
When men are incarcerated, gender issues often become heightened as they seek power or control in the prison. According to Kupers (2005), toxic masculinity involves “the need to aggressively compete and dominate others.” This concept may contribute to certain groups holding more power over others, and leads to the formation of dynamics between sub-communities within the prison. Toxic masculinity frequently results in male offenders resisting mental health treatment or other psychotherapy, since it could be perceived by other inmates as a “vulnerability”. Therefore, male offenders often underreport their emotional issues, and may not reach out for help until they have developed suicidal ideation or psychotic symptoms, (Kupers, 2005).
A paraphilia is distinguished as a fixation with an object or behavior to the point of developing dependence on said object or conduct for sexual gratification. In society, sexual disorders are viewed as distasteful acts but what are the limits until they are considered as bizarre, unusual, or atypical. According to (Placeholder2) men are more likely
It is theorized that the more resources a partner brings to the relationship, the more power he or she has, but it is less likely the partner will resort to violence. However, if his or her power is threatened by a partner’s education or job, violence may be used to reestablish dominance. Resource theory is similar to intimate terrorism (Arthur 149). Arthur has hypothesized that, “As levels of education, labor force, participation, and access to political roles for women increase, domestic violence will increase” (149). This has been hypothesized because men will feel threatened by the power of women and retaliate (Arthur
Additionally, how violent someone is also has to do with how they are raised and the environment they grow up in. People’s genetics and physical characteristics may play a role in making them at higher risk for becoming criminals, but I certainly do not believe they are the primary cause in a person’s violent nature. Men are expected to be more aggressive than women, and to fit in, they become more aggressive. The documentary referred to this phenomenon as gender policing.
The Crucible by Arthur Miller is a historical fiction about the Salem witch trials in the late 1600’s. John Proctor plays the protagonist and throughout the storyline his masculinity decreases due to Abigail Williams. Throughout the play it's clear the female characters have more power than the men in the Theocratic society of Salem. The girls are put in court after being caught in the woods for witchcraft. They exploit their feminine traits and manipulate the men in charge of the court.
Australia is a nation that has prided itself on mateship and the character of those who live and work in the bush, men who exude masculinity. The suburban sprawl and modernisation has lessened the need for men to be innately masculine however society still expects men to be men. This paper will discuss and compare both literal and figurative references to masculinity in both the Summer of the Seventeenth Doll and Johnno. It will firstly look at the assumption of society that men of the bush are more masculine by nature, it will then discuss the role mateship plays in masculinity, this will be followed by looking at how the changing typography of society is bringing a new understanding of what masculinity is and lastly will look at how
Establishing male supremacy is the mindset of a misogynist. This is specifically important because gender is constantly changing; when femininity alters and masculinity changes to compensate, always fluctuating based on the other gender. Constantly changing genders cause confusion, but change also brings awareness to the issues it causes. Recognition of the subordination of women has compromised the dominance of males leading to new forms of masculinity. Since women have begun to explore the “domains” of men, misogynists change what it means to be masculine to compensate.
The American hero is portrayed with traditional masculinity because of the normalization of male dominance in American culture. The fantasized masculinity of the American hero makes omnipotence seem obtainable because movies and comic books convince the American people that it is possible to be a real hero if they strive for this idealized form of