This can be understood as how each individual internally experience gender. This could take shape in male, female, neither or along a spectrum. As well, an individual’s gender identity is not solidified by their birth-assigned sex, allowing the individual the freedom to identify themselves without binary categories. The second level of gender is interaction. Over time, men and women have been taught how to act in accordance with gender conformed behaviours, and looked upon as “abnormal” if they deviant from what is expected.
One of the first women to argue that women acquired all rights that Locke had granted to men, including education and participation in political life, was Mary Wollstonecraft, an English writer. Numerous French women assumed that they would achieve equal rights after the revolution. However, it did not bring the right to vote or contribute in public affairs. Since the gender roles did not change much at then end of the revolution, social reformers pressed for women's rights in Europe and North America. Americans like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in the United States decided to focus their energy the right to vote, also recognized as suffrage.
Birth Order and its Impacts on Personality Development Human psychological development being a complex system is affected by number of potential internal and external stimuli. Starting from the simple prenatal period to environment exposure until 5 years, greatly shape a child’s personality. Out of these the one of the commonly neglected factor is birth order. So what is birth order and how it determines and influences the personality development? Birth Order: “It is an order or a sequence in which a child born to a
FCDA scholars see gender as socially and individually constructed and it interacts with other aspects of identity – such as ethnicity, age, class, sexual identity – and with power relations, thus gender is not discursively enacted in the same way for women and men everywhere (Lazar 2005:10; Sunderland and Litosseliti 2002:15 as cited in Lehtonen, 2007). Butler’s theory of performativity which states that gender is not natural instead constructed socially is provides the ground for understanding the social function of language in constructing gender. Thus the focus on empirical studies, and the ways in which gender is actually constructed in authentic texts and situations (Lazar 2005:12-13; Sunderland and Litosseliti 2002:27, as cited in Lehtonen,
Gender is not associated with one’s physical constructive, then again, it is far more confounding. It is characterised as “the complex interrelationship between an individual’s sex (gender biology) and one’s internal sense of self as male, female, both or neither (gender identity) as well as one’s outward presentations and behaviour (gender expression), related to that perception, including their gender roles.” Freud pointed out that when we meet a person, the first thing that we notice and establish is that person’s gender. Most of the times, if we are not able to place or establish a person’s gender, it will cause inconvenience to us. Perhaps, this ‘establishment’ is interlinked with the way we behave with the person, which is explained by the gender system, predominant in one’s culture. A gender system incorporates “processes that define males and females as different in socially significant ways and justify inequality on the basis of that difference.” This gender system lays down the guidelines about what behaviour a particular society expects of males and females.
Along with topics such as race, religion and class, gender has become a commonly discussed topic in sociology. With this comes the discussion of transgenderism and gender identity. Progressive movements and organisations such as third-wave feminism and the United Nations actively support progressive gender theory, pushing for laws regarding the rights of those who don’t conform to a gender binary. The field of gender theory discusses a multitude of topics, with the major subjects being the difference between sex and gender and the social construction of gender. Modern sociology states there is a difference between sex and gender – defining sex as “the biological categorisation based on reproductive organs” and gender as a “social classification based on on’s identity, presentation of self, behaviour and interaction with others” (Crossman, 2017).
As society has grown and has shaped from the beginning of time, the difference between gender, sex, and identity has not become such a well-known issue until recently. Most people do not realize the difference between gender and sex; Sex is biological while gender is based on the social role of the person. The biggest part that society has to realize is that everyone's gender identity, a person's perception of having a particular gender, which may or may not correspond with their birth sex, is personal and varies from person to person. The idea of girls being girls and boys being boys and never “switching” is an older way of thinking that does not work in the modern society we have today. Gender roles, the role or behavior learned by a person as appropriate to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms, are starting to change; Women used to have to stay home and care for the home and children but women today are more powerful than ever and hold very important jobs while men have taken on more household responsibilities.
Gender roles are beliefs about the ways in which communal and societal roles are defined by gender (Slavkin&Stright, 2000). In traditional families, traditional gender roles are common. The male is the breadwinner; while the female is responsible for childcare and housekeeping. This pattern defines masculinity as assertive, aggressive, and independent (Eagly, 1987; Eagly & Steffen, 199284) and femininity is defined as emotional, sensitive and nurturing (Bem, 1981; Slavkin&Stright 2000). Gender differences have been discussed thoroughly by many researchers in the fields of language, education and others(see for instance, Locke, 2011, Okamoto, Slattery Rashotte, & Smith-Lovin, 2002, and &Kiesling, 2007).
They reject the ideas that biological differences will make women less competent in some jobs or professions or the other stereotype that men are less emotional, have less empathy and are therefore less able to nurture children or other people who need caring, including the elderly. Liberal Feminists would distinguish between sex and gender. By sex they mean biological differences such as the ability to reproduce as well as hormonal and physical characteristics. Gender differences are socially constructed with differences between the male roles originally as ‘hunter-gatherer’ but later as the breadwinner, whereas females have the carer role and will look after children or other vulnerable members of the family. Liberal Feminists would argue that whilst sex differences are fixed, gender differences both vary over time and between cultures.