One of these perspectives is analyzing communication through gender. In the book, You Just Don’t Understand, Deborah Tannen (1990) popularized the term “genderlect” to describe the way in which men and women communicate with each other. She suggested that men and women have different styles of conversing, forming two distinct dialects. In a review of Tannen’s book, DeFrancisco (1992) attributed the differing communication styles of men and women to the respective cultures in which they grow up. Because of such gender differences, misunderstanding between men and women creates a gap in the communication process.
Feminists have recognized the factor of gender differentiation as the root cause of women’s derogatory status in the hierarchical order of most of the societies. Kate Millet in her seminal book, Sexual Politics, defines gender as a, “Personality, structure in terms of sexual category.” 10 Gender differs from sex, as sex is assigned based on anatomy of a person, while gender is assigned according to the sexuality of a person. Gender is decided by cultural, social, political and economic forces, which influence social behavior of men and women. Gender is a historical force also because we find gender bias pre-existent in the society. As soon as, a birth takes place, child gets a gender identity of a male or a female.
The researcher discusses the masculine crisis in this novel by using Judith Butler’s theory of gender and other critics on masculinity and womb envy. Key words: gender; masculinity; masculine crisis; power; womb envy INTRODUCTION The term
In the Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, readers witness the transformation of gender roles within the novella. This transformation that occurs is not an obvious however; readers can see the difference in the perception of women in the novella. As a result of modernism there is a shift in views of various aspects and concepts in life. Some such shifts include the way that writers wrote, what writers wrote about, it is a period within the enlightenment, where scholars developed their approach to various ideals therefore changing society’s perspective on things. Evidence of modernism is redolent throughout Conrad’s novella.
INTRODUCTION: This essay will be discussing gender and how gender roles influence worldviews and how it has developed and changed. It will also be discussed of how worldviews has impacted the stereotypical gender roles in the modern society, and the different types of gender roles that has caused worldviews and gender to change constantly. GENDER ROLES AND HOW IT INFLUENCES WORLDVIEWS: People grow up with a certain mind set and a norm towards gender and gender roles. We stereotype gender roles, place them inside a box without giving it another thought, completely underestimating the roles of gender and how it can influence worldviews. We do not accept definite gender behaviours whether or not their qualities are acceptable in the modern society
It can be noted through the narrative that values and tradition of the Puritan settlement influence the social as well as the gender expectations. The story have been viewed in various dimensions including- as a tale of sin and its consequence, isolation, redemption, passion, love and struggle against society’s conventions. Through Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne challenges the conventional view of men and women in Puritan New England. It is interesting that Hester, who on one hand is suffering from social isolation, exhibits a desire to be once more accepted as a full member of the community and on the other, her passionate spirit and her personal, moral laws seem to be directly opposed to the Puritan belief which deems her sin as evil and docile; being a woman, she is expected to behave submissively. However, she doesn’t, challenging the notion attached with woman.
This study gives an account of Churchil’s effort to highlight the effects of patriarchal essentialism in terms of gender roles. The thesis is assesses Caryl Churchill’s criticism of social and culturally established roles enforced by patriarchy on both sexes in her three plays Owners, Cloud Nine, and Top Girls by referring to Kate Millet’s definition of the aspects of patriarchal ideology in Sexual Politics, and the thesis contends that gender roles are arbitrary. The next study is Gender Politics and
When men occupy a superior position, they have the power to control women and their lives. Men determine the likelihoods of women to access opportunities, such as form of education, public facility, career, etc. The power men have over women later gives rise to gender problems between them, which is known as gender discrimination. Hosseini’s‘A Thousands Splendid Suns’ is a novel that shows the plight of women who suffer from gender discrimination in a strong patriarchal society of Afghanistan. With the feminist theory and women’s problems as the background, we are able to see that gender discrimination depicted in the novel is complex.
Differences in men’s and women’s speech People will consciously and unconsciously perform each identity. Language is a form of performance. The conventions of linguistic behaviour of men and women are strained from the performance of the felt and desired gender identity of a person. The above-mentioned conventions are based on natural discourse of the genders as well as on the ideologies of gendered speech behaviour within a society. Feminist movements realized that language was one of the instruments of female oppression by males.
The XXth century may rightly be considered as an era of changing value systems in the relationships between men and women. Emerged in the 60’s in America, the second wave of feminism as a new real object of social struggle considers gender stereotypes, preventing realization of women’s rights conquered at the previous stage of the feminist movement. As a result, many great and different writers set gender issues in the American literary works of twentieth century. When considering the gender issues in literature, we can conclude that there is a lack of masculinity studies in comparison with studies on feminism due to the historical background mentioned above. Hence, we make the aim of our research to shed the light on the image of a ‘man’ in American postmodern literature by studying the main peculiarities of heroes in literary works of that period.