Mass Media could also make a strong contribution, with the implementation of media campaigns, to the dissemination of the concept of gender equality. If people see in the media the overcome of the differences between men and women will bring him back into everyday life. The Mass Media have always unconsciously affected and influenced the thinking and behavior of society. Media should focus success stories of established, successful & renowned women in spite of indecent representation of women. As an important agent of socialization shaping of gender roles, its mechanisms for checks and balances with respect to gender need to be strengthened.
The Enlightenment brings upon new ideas from “[groups] of writers and scholars who [believe] that human begins could apply to a critical and reasoning spirit to every problem they [encounter] in the world…scrutinizing everything from absolutism…to the traditional role of women in society” (Hunt et al, 514). A major turn of events in the Enlightenment arose specifically on the viewpoints of women and their role in society. Major debates sparked and it is the first time that women are able to express their views. Major contributors for the voice of feminism include Mary Astell and Mary Wollstonecraft, both supporters for female education. What came with the views of female empowerment came the views of those who saw females as merely caregivers to the male population.
So when is an campaign truly empowering opposed to merely provocative? This is a complex concept that is dealt with in the Post-feminist movement. This movement or culture “works in part to incorporate, assume, or naturalise aspects of feminism; crucially, it also works to commodify feminism via the figure of women as empowered consumer. Thus, Post-feminist culture emphasizes educational and professional opportunities for women and girls; freedom of choice with respect to work, domesticity, and parenting; and physical and particularly sexual empowerment.” (: 13). The movement supports “the identification of women’s sexual subjectivity as a crucial site of empowerment” (: 5).
Such a notion not only served it a greater social purpose as it gave more power to men who were seen as natural leaders, but at the same time formed gender identities while preserving the archetype of femininity and masculinity. According to Barbara Welter, a historian and author of The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860 (1966), the nineteenth century American society was a reflection of gender stereotypes where roles assigned to sex held women in the cultural manacles of subordination and limits. The work illustrates the gender boundary between men and women, while focusing on the hailed pure image of a housewife, who suppressed her instincts aspirations, and accepted the chores dictated by the cultural division supporting the policy governed by social hierarchy resulting in misogyny. In this fundamental for this thesis discourse, Barbara Welter provides various exemplars of limiting women’s development and pointed the route regarding little room for intellectual maneuver what translated into docile behaviour. The author writes that “submission was perhaps the most feminine virtue expected of
Our understanding of gender inequalities in society is based on how hegemonic masculinity operates. Subordinate men only exist because they are measured in relation to hegemonic masculinity. Even so, as a group, subordinate men can still access power and privilege by aspiring to hegemonic masculine traits (Messner, 1997). Emphasised femininity implies that individuals are orientated to accommodate the desires and interests of men (Kilduff & Mehra, 1996). Women who possess hegemonic masculine characteristics, such as successful, competitive and physically superior women, are often seen as threats to men, unfeminine and ‘bad’ (Vescio, Schlenker & Lenes, 2010).
Feminism actually emerged as a reaction against the unjust treatment and subjugation of women; it aims at the emancipation of women from all forms of oppression. It sought for the equality of women and change of the existing gender relations prevalent in patriarchal societies. In fact, Feminism struggles to eliminate sexism and put an end to the supremacy and domination of man as well as the devaluation and subordination of woman. It aims at changing the prevalent institutions which have been codified by men and on their behalf, and subsequently resulted in the unjust discrimination between man and woman. Feminists are of the view that the discrimination against women is unfair; they call for putting an end to male domination as well as the exploitation of women.
She provides details and logic that back up her statements. She gives relatable examples and alarming possible outcomes. One of Wollstonecraft’s point is that, women are dependent on men because of the way society views marriage. Women from before based their survival on the approval on men, instead of furthering on their educational needs (Poonacha 427). Wollstonecraft, in order to convince her readers for change, gather up what women lack and blames it all back to their lack of education, thus proving her point more.
To put it simply, gender is the identification of male or female due to their ability to perform as male or female (reproductive roles). it could also be seen as a range of characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between masculinity and femininity. Gender plays a very significant role in the society. The gender of a person could determine how well they fit in the society as some societies tend to favor the males better than the females as they believe that males are superior to female. This in some societies is a problem as women are trying to fight for their right to be able to do things that the males do.
(Hill-Meyer, 2009). Intersectional Feminist Theory is the theory that women experience oppression in various forms and ways. Cultural patterns have become interlocked by the intersectional systems that society has created to continue the multi facets of oppression. This is increased where transitioning which, in itself, is taboo for why would a man want to be a woman. A man has greater rights than a woman and is widely more respected.
Feminist scholarships are defined as sets of ideas for academic and intellectual orientation and interest towards women (Ngwainmbi, 2004). In general, women issues and problems are from oppressive, exclusionary, and discriminatory practices built into societal institutions. It is the knowledge where women issues and problems are identified through study, investigate and observe for those who are specialized and interest in this specific field. These scholar objectives are to produce knowledge contribution to women and also this knowledge is the bridge to find solutions to support women issues and problems. Hence, feminist scholarship is a framework that provides a platform for intellectual and academic for feminism studies.