Postmodern Feminism Essay Whether sexuality and gender are learned or based in nature has been, and continues to be, a highly debated question with in our society. There are individuals that believe sexuality and gender are innate, meaning that we are born into them. On the other hand, some individuals believe that our sexuality and gender are learned, that they are socially constructed. The latter belief is known as gender performativity, coined by Judith Butler, and is a widely held belief among postmodern feminists. Throughout this essay, I will be analyzing a cultural artifact to further explore the theories of postmodernist feminists, specifically gender performativity.
Patriarchy is rooted in gender difference. Lerner (1986) relates gender issues to social construct and cultural behaviour as opposed to biological sexes in a given society. The author described gender as representation socio-cultural roles and is a cultural product which changes over time. Patriarchy might be a diminishing believes, but since it’s a deeply entrenched traditional norms, it will be a difficult challenge to eliminate globally (Warren, 2004; Roberts, 1983). Inhumanity and social studies patriarchy have been categorise at two levels, namely at gender level and latent levels.
It might have been through this abstract literary and intellectual movements that radical plans rise from, furthermore these thoughts offered route to the age of revolutions, including American and the French Revolutions, which transformed the entire fabric of Western society. Throughout this period, there flourished both idealistic and negative plans concerning what upcoming day of humankind. In reaction to classical values of order, regularity and objectivity, the Romantic Movement laid stress on the passionate manifestations of articulation. “The “Romantic” refus[ed] to recognize the restraints in subject matter or form, and…represent[ed] the abnormal, grotesque, and monstrous…modes of expression” (Perkins, 1967,p.2) English Romantic writers in building and also reacting against the mind of their progenitors broke for significant patterns and viewed themselves as visionaries for the capacity to search past in the normal done life, and with consider man’s extreme plan in an dubious universe. The principal era of Romantics like William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge hesitated in
While First Wave feminism emerges in the nineteenth-century, fighting for women’s rights by advocating for equal economic, educational and political opportunities, Second Wave feminism arises in the 1960s maintaining the idea that “the personal is political.” Second wavers such as Betty Friedan and Kate Millet react against the discursive practices of the patriarchal society, which subjugate women. However, looking at mainstream feminism in contemporary Western societies, Mary Hawkesworth observes that “a strange phenomenon has accompanied the unprecedented growth of feminist activism around the globe: the recurrent pronouncement of feminism’s death” (qtd. in Rachel Blau DuPlessis and Ann Snitow xi). In the 1990s, a younger generation of feminist
Connell & Messerschmidt (2005) detect this tendency in most modern theories of gender. The dominance of men and the subordination of women constitute a historical process, not a self-reproducing system. “Masculine domination” is open to challenge and requires considerable effort to maintain (Connell & Messerschmidt,
Today’s society still has a main set of ideas on how men and women are expected to dress, behave, and present themselves solely based on their gender. Gender role expectations can vary from each society, ethnic group, and culture. Gender based stereotypes are widely accepted judgments or biases about a person or group, but these stereotypes are typically exaggerated and not always accurate. Gender based stereotypes can cause sexism, which is defined as “prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex.” (Oxford Dictionary). Although gender roles are changing for the better, they still exist in today’s world and affect our society’s perspective on gender based personality traits, domestic behaviors and
A pertinent issue which has gained a lot of attention recently in the social media is the way people should behave depending on different factors, for example: culture or gender. Moreover, nowadays there are people who think that taking up other gender roles is overrated because these are usually determined by past generations. Therefore, they argue that in the current world people should behave the way they want without taking into account other people’s opinions. However, this issue was really relevant in England during the nineteenth century where codes of behaviour were strictly followed and taken into account by the society. This essay will examine the representation of gender in one Victorian work, Oscar Wilde’s 1899 melodrama The Importance of Being
We need to stop generalising and stereotyping men and focus on the understanding of masculinities as a more complex model and one that not only relates to relations of power between men and women but between men themselves. Just as there are many different feminisms there are also multiple types of masculinities. The dominant from of masculinity in society is hegemony – the idealised notion of the ‘real man’ – the ‘bread-winner’, the ‘provider’, the strong, emotionless ‘power-holder’. This rigid cultural ‘norm’ has multiple pressures associated with it and has many negative effects. As Kimmel states in his paper on masculinity in global development: “Not all men are equally privileged by patriarchy, and some are marginalised due to inequalities connected to class, sexuality, ability and ethnicity”.
Another important section highlighted in The Long-Durée Entanglement Between Islamophobia and Racism in the Modern/Colonial Capitalist/Patriarchal World-System is Islamophobia as epistemic racism. This view on Islamophobia argues
Prior to the feminist movement, inequality among genders was apparent and concurring. Men were superior while women were greatly discriminated. Moreover, prejudicial beliefs also applied. The Feminist Mystique, a book written by Betty Friedan attacked this sexist outlook. Men were