Gender Issues In Cooperatives: A Literature Review

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Gender role refers those tasks and responsibilities of men and women as determined by a particular society. The society expects both men and women to perform their roles in the culturally acceptable manners. For example, the socialization process moulds women into the role of subservient mother and wife’s preparing food, looking after children, fetching water as well as to low status productive activities such as trade in the informal sector. While it is considered appropriate for males to work in income earning or productive activities (Etsegenet, 1999). 2.6.3. Gender division of labor
The labor division between sexes is best explained by gender because task division doesn’t relate to the sex of individual concerned. Division of labor between the two sexes is socially not biologically determined. As a social construct it is subject to change, the cross- cultural variations in the gender division of labor reveal this fact (Meseret, 2009). Most literature indicates that in the labor division, men are responsible to fulfill the basic household requirements but in practice, in the rural areas women provide the basic needs of the family 2.6.4. Gender issue in cooperatives
Gender issues is a socio-economic and political arena is relatively new.
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A single technological change could enforce “a radical shift in gender roles (Easter Boserup, 2005). For example, if the old method of cultivation such as the hoe has been replaced by plough cultivation men have taken over the plough and men rather than women operate the main farming equipment. When new methods of cultivation are introduced, men are generally the first to use them. Hence, the productivity of men increases while that of women is almost stagnant, which leads to a wider income gap between men and women as the society develop. In almost all counties, women have almost last ground relative to
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