Gender Scaffolding In Language Learning

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Gender, Scaffolding Mechanism and Output Complexity in Task-based Language Learning

Maryam Fanai
MA in TEFL, Velayat University, Iranshahr, Iran

Amir Zand-Moghadam*
Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran amir.zand.moghadam@gmail.com Hamid Bahador
Assistant Professor,

Abstract
In sociocultural approach to second language acquisition (SLA), learning is believed to occur through language use, collaboration, and scaffolding; learners can assist each other and learn from each other’s differences while performing different collaborative tasks. As far as individual differences are concerned, gender plays an important role as a variable in language learning. This study was aimed at investigating
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In a study, Villamil and De Guerrero (2000) investigated how learners mutually scaffolded their partners. The participants of the study were two Spanish male college students who had enrolled in an ESL writing course. They were required to perform a revision task in which they revised each other’s writing. Then, they commented on different points in Spanish or English while they were tape-recorded. The results revealed that two learners utilized different scaffolding mechanisms to revise the text while the reader played the role of a mediator. Ohta (2001) examined peer-peer interaction in a longitudinal study of seven adult Japanese learners. It was aimed to determine how learning process was affected by social interaction, while learners were engaged in doing interactive language learning tasks. The results showed that the novice learners were able to scaffold their expert partners, and not all the peer interaction was error-free; however, incorporation of incorrect utterances was low. It was concluded that the benefits of peer interaction outperformed its negative effects because peer scaffolding constructed “bridges to proficiency” (p.…show more content…
It generally addresses the four language skills. The test included items testing knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, and social language. In part I, the test takers were required to complete 3 listening tasks, including 10 multiple-choice items of increasing difficulty in 15 minutes. In part II, the test takers were required to complete 2 reading tasks, including 10 multiple-choice items of increasing difficulty in 30 minutes. In part III, the test takers were asked to answer 120 multiple-choice items in 50 minutes. Totally, the test included140 items which was answered in 95 minutes. Interview
In order to measure the participants’ speaking ability, an interview was conducted. The interview topics were mostly related to their general world knowledge, including population explosion, air pollution, traffic, etc. The participants’ interviews were scored based on Brown’s Oral Proficiency Scoring Categories (2001). The mean score of the placement test and interview was considered as every participant’s final score. The results were then ranked from the highest to the lowest. The participants who ranked in the middle were chosen as collaborative pairs.
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