According to Islamic principles, both men and women have absolutely the same human rights, but if we attentively look after their roles in real life, one can easily observe that there is discrimination. As it is said before, my research questions were: Is there gender inequality between men and women? To what extent people's belief about gender inequality is right and who benefits more out of it: men or women? In order to answer the given questions an internet survey and an interview were conducted, where survey mostly was directed to answer to the first question, while second question were discussed in an unstructured interview. 1.1.
I also looked into how advertising supports hegemonic masculinity, which is the idea of masculinity being dominant. (Ravelli and Webber 2016: 203). Throughout this paper I will be talking about how advertising makes gender codes and if they affect how I view individuals, and if they affect the way people view me. I will also be addressing if there are different codes, like class codes that may affect the way others and/or I view individuals. Lastly, I will be explaining how using a sociological perspective can help to think outside of gender codes and realize that it is not something that should be seen as normal.
Since the old days, Thai people hold gender stereotypes of perceiving men in the field of engineering as the ‘hegemonic masculinity’ or ‘ideal man’. By studying engineering, one conforms to the gender roles of masculinity in academic context. On the contrary, for some men who choose to study in feminine-related fields such as Faculty of Arts, they are considered as the ‘subordinate masculinity’ that contradicts with hetero-normativity concept. This essay will discuss how ‘constructed gender stereotypes’ and ‘hegemonic masculinity’ in academic context present in reality and will explore the underlying causes of it. Gender stereotypes in Thailand According to Foucault, “we are gendered through the power of regulated and regulatory discourses” (Barker 291).
There are so many images of men and women in the media today that it certainly has an impact on the viewer’s thoughts and sense of identity. I’m going to solely focus on how femininity is represented in contemporary advertising. Types of Stereotypes in the mass media Commonly in the mass media, such as movies, TV shows and advertising women are generally portrayed with certain stereotypes. Women are often stereotypically shown as playing dependent roles to men, lesser beings to men and as sexual objects. According to research carried out by Steve Craig, in commercial advertisements women can be portrayed in several different variants.
Advertising and mass media forms gender codes that are associated with representing male and female attributes. These gender codes shape the way society views gender and also the acceptance of gender performance. As discussed above in section 2, gender is not formed at birth, this self identification is governed by socio cultural norms. Media often presents these socio cultural aspects and set these as ideal for gender roles. Mass media becomes a primary tool which encourages people to participate in a gendered world.
Gender differences in the use of social media have been frequently subject to scholarly debates over the past few years. Even before the advent of SNSs, social scientists have identified significant gender differences in media use (Rosengren 1974) and daily communication patterns (Duck et al. 1991). In a similar vein, recent CMC studies have uncovered significant gender differences in mediated self-presentation (Whitty 2008), privacy concerns (Hoy & Milne 2010) and overall levels of self-disclosure on SNSs (Special & Li-Barber 2012). For example, there is some evidence that male users may be more engaged in information-disclosure, while female users may be more engaged in privacy controlling behaviours (Kuo et al.
The discussions in the literature of entrepreneurship suggest that flagrant and persistent differences between men and women's entrepreneurial activity may be associated with gender characterization (Carter, Anderson, and Shaw, 2001). Specifically, the researchers argue that socially constructed and learned ideas about gender and limit the entrepreneurship of women's ability to run social, cultural, human, and capital limits and placing on financial their ability to generate personal savings have attractive credit history for vendors resources, or engaging the interest of loan officers, angel investors and venture Capitalists (Gatewood, 2005). These factors are believed to interact to influence the types of business men and women entrepreneurs start and that its further development. For example, women entrepreneurs are more likely than men to have companies (often in the service or retail sector) that are smaller, slower growing and less profitable (Carter et
Gender is a culturally constructed factor that refers to the behaviours and attitudes a particular society expects from males and females, depending on their biological sex. Media through its messages, have played and continues to play an important part in the forming and reinforcing of gender stereotypes and the expectations about gender roles. Much has been written about the portrayal of women and stereotyping in the media and in advertising. However, there are a number of advertisements that target men, trying
; meanwhile; men are portrayed to be jurisdictional with their careers. In order to clarify my argument, I would like to study rigorously four TV advertisements which illustrate disparate stereotypes for both men and women. First and foremost, I would like to discuss precisely the term ideology, and then it will be more straightforward to analyze gender ideologies in each advertisement demonstrated. More acutely, ideology is “a mosaic of cultural assumptions, political beliefs, and institutional practices” (Simpson, 1993: 176). In other words, ideology mentions a set of beliefs, especially one held by a particular group, signifying changes in people’s attitudes and behaviours.
Some of the common stereotypes that are often associated with women are negative, such as, they are considered to be individuals, who are incapable of taking quick decisions, who lack logical thinking and as someone who is sensitive and incapable of handling pressure and stress. On the other hand, men are attributed with