Their editorial content was exclusively concerned with the domestic sphere: family issues, children, health, nutrition and housekeeping, making women queens of domesticity. Thus, the discourse glorifying the domestic sphere and the image of the happy housewife contributed to the social conditioning of women that Betty Friedan called the ‘feminine mystique” in her book of the same name. Published in 1963, The Feminine Mystique laid the basis for the women’s movement by circulating contemporary feminist ideas, and soon became the founding text of second wave feminism. According to Friedan, « The feminine mystique says
This was helped along by the fact that many of the women who worked during the war filling jobs previously done by men faced dismissal, discrimination, and hostility when the men returned from the war. Educators thought over-educated, career-focused mothers were responsible for the poor adjustment of men coming home from the war. Friedan shows that Overbearing mothers were, in fact, the ones who raised maladjusted children Germaine Greer, in her first book The Female Eunuch, (1970) theorizes that women are forced to take on submissive roles society so men 's fantasies can be fulfilled. Greer argues that men hate women,
It later became the International Planned Parenthood Federation. This nation promotes women rights and gradually gets the equal rights with men. Women can be able to divorce with men and got a second marriage. Many women wrote the letter to Sanger and discuss about how to prevent the pregnancies. This message shows the women in 1920s changed a lot and learned to protect
As a nurse visiting, Margaret Sanger witnessed and met immigrant working mothers who were deeply impacted by unexpected pregnancies and botched miscarriages (Amory). Margaret Sanger violated the Comstock Act of 1873 because of her belief in women’s right, thus causing a conflict between Sanger and those against her ideas, and the laws that suppressed her from advocating. As a result of her hard work, the Comstock Act was compromised and amended after she gained support from her articles, which led to the creation of a birth control clinic, the ability to distribute contraceptives, and a new-found support and idea for women to have more control over their lives. The Comstock Act in 1873 was designed to aid and encourage moral as well as
She also helped progress the women's rights movement as one of the creator of the National Organization for Women (Friedan, Betty. 1963). Her book The Feminine Mystique shaped a social upheaval by dismissing the myth that all women desired to be happy homemakers, and marking the start of what would become Friedan's extremely momentous role in the women's rights movement. The work is also attributed with inspiring second-wave feminism in the United States (Friedan, Betty. 1963).
The introduction of the birth control pill in 1965 helped women choose between a full-time career and motherhood—or do both. In contrast with the Victorian ideals of women, specifically the devoted motherly role, women in the late Sixties could determine their fate as a mother or a professional as a result of this pill. However, the predominant gender socialization and restrainment the Victorian society imprints upon women is crucial in Kate Chopin’s novel The Awakening. This unjust notion is strongly imposed upon Edna Pontellier, protagonist of the novel. The novel confines her into being the stereotypical housewife and triggers a recalcitrant awakening against society’s norms.
However, women arose to challenge these social norms. For instance, Jane Addams merited her independence with the establishment the Hull House. This settlement house, developed in 1889, helped women find their voice. It educated women and children, encouraged civil reform, and incited women into contemporary careers such as social work. It was programs like this that equipped women for the freedom that came with the nineteenth amendment.
However, by the middle of the 19th century, this belief started changing as activists began advocating for the rights of women. By the end of the 1800s, the concept of “The New Woman” had already started circulating as women pushed for broader roles that drew on their talents and intelligence outside their homes. Gilman was one of those women who strongly advocated for revised roles for women through literature. The Yellow Wallpaper was first published in the New England Magazine in January 1892 and is considered to be one of the earliest literary pieces that focused on women’s rights in America. Gilman created a fictional narrative based on her personal experiences suffering from depression and nervousness, which describes the kind of suffering women went through since doctors advocated for ‘rest cure.’ This story focuses on the unequal relationship between males and females in the American society in the 19th
This eight section article outlines the general patterns Michel Foucault uses to explain femininity and the modernization of power dynamics. The works goes through describing the disciplinary practices modern societies use to construct femininity and how this inflicts an inferior status on those being targeted. This power dynamic aims at regulation which is perpetual and exhaustive. The disciplines described in this piece are the ways in which society boxes women. These concepts are created to target women and submit them into working towards achieving an unattainable standard of beauty.