Gender Schema Theory

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GENDER THEORIES
Observation ,imitation ,rewards and punishment – these are the mechanisms by which gender develops according to social cognitive theory .Interactions between the child and the social environments are the main keys to gender development in this view .Two cognitive theories-cognitive developmental theory and gender schema theory-
*The Cognitive Development Theory of Gender stated that children’s gender typing occurs after children think of themselves as boys and girls. Once they consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children prefer activities, objects and attitudes consistent with this label.
-Gender schema theory suggests that young children are influenced by society's ideas
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Gender schema theory was first developed by Sandra Bem in 1981 and later expanded by Carol Martin and Charles Halverson in 1983. According to gender schema theory, once children have formed a basic gender identity they start to develop gender schemas. Gender schemas are based on children's interactions and observations of others, their environment, and the culture. These gender schemas are used to organize and direct the child's behavior based on his or her society's gender norms and expectations related to the child's…show more content…
Before this time, however , most little girls prefer girlish toys and clothes and games, and most little boys prefer boys toys and games .Thus , contrary to cognitive development theory , gender typing does not appear to depend on gender constancy.
Unlike cognitive developmental theory ,gender schema theory does not require children to perceive gender constancy before they begin gender typing .Instead , gender schema theory states that gender typing occur s when children are ready to encode and organize information along the lines of what is considered appropriate for female and male society (Marti & Dinella,2001;Martin &Halverson ,1981;Ruble,Martin,& Berenbaum,2006).
Bit by bit , children pick up what is gender –appropriate and gender –inappropriate in their culture , and develop gender schemas that shape how they perceive the world and what they remember. Children are motivated to act in ways that conform with these gender schemas .Thus, gender schemas fuel gender

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