The problem with the “wave metaphor” is, when these periods of feminist history are viewed through an intersectional lens, we see that most of early feminist history was only the activity of economically privileged white women, or women whose intersectionality was favored by the American patriarchy. The marginalization of other women, whose intersectionalities were not favored in the past, leads to a whitewashed view of historical progress. However, women of color had recognized opinions among their own coalitions, but their opinions were simply not recognized by white upper-class feminist movements. Further analysis of feminist movements around the world, when viewed through an intersectional lens, allows us to see that the “wave metaphor” hardly holds it’s water.
“If you don’t know the difference between white feminism [versus] intersectional feminism [,] then you’re probably a white feminist” (qtd. in Dastagir, 2018). Everybody falls into certain groups that are related to each individual person – whether that is age, gender, sexual orientation, race, or any other characteristic. Each person therefore identifies in more than one subgroup. Intersectional feminism is the overlapping of these categories in the feminist movement.
Throughout the history of the United States, let alone the world, women have faced a lack of economic independence that caused them to become dependent on their fathers or husbands. According to sociologist and author Charlotte Perkins Gilman, active around the turn of the 20th century, this lack of economic independence amongst women has a direct relationship with gender inequality. As per her theory regarding this relationship, Gilman identifies three factors that help to cause gender inequality: gender socialization, sociobiology, and a Marxist emphasis. That is, girls are taught to be different from boys beginning at a young age, there biological differences between women and men, and women are prone to more submissive roles within families
Second wave of feminists believed that if you do not have a concept of gender or you do not know the construction of gender you won’t be able to trace why there is a social-inequality. Second wave feminists also pointed out that all the rights that the first wave fought for were from the
Actually, it also indicates that Mary’s argument of improper education for women is still much valid for today. According to UNESCO, “The EFA Assessment estimated that 113 million children were not enrolled in primary school in 1998 and 60% of the total are girls” (UNESCO, 2000). Furthermore, for Indian girls, education is far less significant than their virginity and purity for gaining the social status. Moreover, as a developing country, lots of Indian families will require their girls to work in order to support the family while on the other hand, boys are encouraged to go to school (Argintar, J.,
Reitman then examines the combative relationship between the two groups. Cultural relativists believe feminists are ‘protecting a Western notion of equality’ (Reitman 1997, 107); that the universal rights they claim are based on the perspective of Western, white middle-class women without regards to women of other culture. In turn, feminists accuse cultural relativists of ‘protecting a male version of culture’ (Reitman 1997, 107) and that cultural relativism is hindering the realization and enforcement of women’s human rights. The author then proceeds to draw parallels between the two critiques. Cultural relativists see
In addition, Morrison went even further and pointed out that this idea was blindly, without question, accepted in both worlds of the racially divided society. It appears that Claudia, probably the alter ego of the author herself is to some extent staying in opposition to the admiration of Temple. The question is, whether Claudia as one of the characters, was able to recognize intuitively that her identity as an African-American person was based on the color of her skin and labelled as the less pretty one or Morrison used her as a tool to illustrate how white privileged society was keeping the feelings of inferiority among the suppressed. The contrast between Claudia’s rebellion and Pecola’s obsession with Temple is a strong device supporting the idea of pushing unconscious sense of lower class status. Within the book, there is a significant growth of Pecola’s obsession with Temple and the blue eyes, which became the centre of her dreams.
When people state “he” did something instead of “he or she” or “one”, when the statement is meant for all genders, they are using gendered language that is exclusive to women. This is linguistic bias or linguistic sexism. Although this sexism is passive, evidence show women feel it actively. The Stout & Dasgupta (2011) paper
Differences of approach are prevalent in regards to first and second wave feminism. First of all, through the 19th and 20th centuries first wave feminists focus on specific basic rights such as women’s suffrage and property rights, through the lens of human individuality, viewing humans as free and disinterested. By contrast, second wave feminists of the 1960s through the 1980s advocate for liberties more relevant for their time, such as sexual, reproductive and workplace rights, then they contrast the first wave approach by demolishing the ideas of personal freedoms set in place by a patriarchal society. Indeed, first wave feminists believe in working within a patriarchal system to achieve true equality and autonomy since we are equal in
Since the 1970’s, women have been able to attend service academies. Even in the 1990’s, they were allowed into military roles, but with many exceptions so that they could not perform in combat. Furthermore, women “earn more than 44 percent of master’s degrees in business and management, including 37 percent of MBAs” (Warner). Although there are many women who have high degrees in business, the Fortune 500 board is only about 17% woman. Women have shown in the statistics that they are capable of achieving high business degrees, so it does not make sense that they are not owning more higher ranking businesses.