Recently, this form of aggression was described as the underlying factor for recent suicides of some adolescents. Relational aggression can be direct or indirect. Direct Relational aggression behaviors defined as the use of confrontational strategies to damage social relationships, include deliberately ignoring someone, threatening to withdraw friendship or support, and excluding someone from a group by telling him or her that he or she is not welcome (Xie, Swift, Cairns & Cairns, 2002). Indirect behaviors are behaviors that attempt to damage someone’s relationships but do not involve direct interaction with that person. Such behaviors include gossiping, starting rumors, and stealing friends or romantic partners (Crothers, Field, & Kolbert,
Kramarae (1981:145), on the other hand, states that ‘men specialize in instrumental or task behaviours and women specialize in expressive or social activities’. Society’s sex-stereotyping of jobs influence girls’ behaviour and expectations, and encourage positive attitude towards language learning while society’s division of tasks and assumptions according to sex is transferred to boys and girls through formal and informal instruction. This alliance between society-education may explain boys’ and girls’ different concerns, attitudes and expectations. Girls’ communicative skills are enhanced if not maximised because of their expected patterns of interaction. Consequently, girls may develop a liking for languages.
Although societies differ in the specific task they assign to the two sexes (male and female), all societies allocate adult roles on the basis of sex and anticipate this allocation in the socialization of their children. Not only are boys and girls expected to acquire sex-specific self-concepts and personality attributes, to be masculine or feminine as defined by that particular culture (Barry, Bacon and Child, 1957. P.354). The process by which by which a society thus transmutes male and female into masculine and feminine is known as the process of sex
Gender. A difference among the nature of each gender is one good indication when measuring attitudes. With the opposing nature of genders such that of personality and interest. As according to Williams and Best cited in Lippa (2010), men are seen as naturally aggressive, arrogant, competitive, independent and unemotional compared to what people see in women as being affectionate, anxious, compassionate, dependent, emotional and sensitive. Considering the held nature of genders, the study would look into the extent of which characteristics of gender is more accepting and open when it comes to their relatives who are involved in interracial relationships.
Individuals’ daily life interactions, family influence, parental guidance and decision making, and role modeling create a constructed perception of gender. However, biological factors such as hormones, also play a role in how an individual acts and thinks. Males have some levels of estrogen, and females have some levels of testosterone. Without a doubt, men and women do have their differences. Biologically, men and women have physical, emotional and mental differences, but these differences do not make women the weaker sex or men the stronger.
Aggression is something psychologists find hard to define because what one person may say is aggressive behaviour another person may think differently. Aggression has been described as “behaviour that results in injury or destruction of property” (Bandura) and Berkowitz defined it as “Behaviour that is intended to injure some-one physically or psychologically.” Both these definitions have a common ground; the “intention to harm.”(Bushman,2002) Social psychologists argue that aggressive behaviour arises out of our interactions with others in our social world. The Social Learning Theory (SLT) suggests that a child learns aggressive behaviour by observing others acting aggressively. They can also learn aggressive behaviour through situations
The second form, verbal aggression contains bad words, threats, and name-calling. The final form, indirect aggression contains gossiping, spreading rumors, and inciting others. (Rockville, 2002, p.1). Moreover, the aggressive behaviors in children sometimes
That is, while other people see us as being male or female, we may or may not fit their expectations of masculinity or femininity because of the way we look, act, or dress. Gender expression can be affected by things such as age, sex, race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. Sometimes these expressions go along with socially sanctioned ideas of what is appropriate. For example, we live in a society that deems dresses appropriate for women, but not for men. But sometimes they don’t.
In addition to this comparison from the past and present regarding the gender-role attitude, according to Eagly and Kite (1987) due to social changes in opportunity structures and constraining institutional arrangements, gender differences have decreased over time, having these stated as a factor that has an effect in gender-role attitude change. Research on intergenerational transmission have followed either childhood socialization or social status models or a combination of the two (Moen, Erickson & Dempster-McClain, 1997), also, attitudes remain susceptible to change, particularly during adolescence and early adulthood, as individuals are exposed to new social influence (Fan & Manini, 2000). Any slight congruence in gender-role attitudes
Apart from that, there are less appropriate ways of gaining respect among other females, namely, gossips. For example, at school, one girl can say something negative, not necessarily truthful, about another one in the class. The gossip comes from one person to another, casting aspersions on someone’s name. The accused person should find the way to defend herself what can lead to conflicts (Anderson, 1994). So, men choose to solve issues by means of violence, women prefer to defer in situations of conflict.