In two ways DNA binding protein can interact with the target DNA. It can bind to the target DNA in a sequence specific manner, where the DNA binding domain can recognize and bind to a specific sequence of the DNA, which is called recognition sequence. This type of interaction is call 'sequence specific DNA-protein interaction'. Sometimes the DNA binding domain can randomly bind to a double stranded as well as a single stranded DNA. It is called 'sequence non-specific DNA-protein interaction'.
Definitions: Nucleolus: The nucleolus functions by manufacturing ribosomes contain the cell 's RNA (Ribonucleic acid). RNA is one of the vital factors that keep the cell functioning. Ribosomes create the proteins needed for the basic functions of the cell. Nucleus: The nucleus controls all actions that occur throughout the nerve cell. As Well the nucleus holds the “DNA” of the cell within itself.
How do this modifications affect the genes? It all start when the genes carry the blueprints to make proteins in the cell. The DNA sequence of a gene is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into the sequence of a protein. Because they change how genes can interact with the cell 's transcribing machinery, epigenetic modifications, generally turn genes on or off, allowing or preventing the gene from being used to make a protein. On the other hand, mutations and bigger changes in the DNA sequence like deletions change not only the sequence of the DNA and RNA, but may affect the sequence of the protein as well.
The first one has REC8 in the protein complex, while the second and third groups have Rad21L and Rad21Scc1 resectively (Uhlmann, 2011). The Rad21L containing group is thought to act as a foundation for lateral-element formation because only Rad21L recruits SYCP1. When the recombination is complete, Rad21L gets dissociated from the complex as a result of phosphorylation. This dissociation can result in synaptonemal-complex disassembly. Thereafter, the meiotic cohesin complexes containing Rad21Scc1 is bound to the chromosomes (Figure 1.8) (Uhlmann,
Bacteria requires to adjust to their environment and to consume any metabolic fuels that can be accessible for their survival; the best favored would be glucose. If it happens that there is a lack or deficit of the glucose, bacteria cells must acclimate to utilizing another form of sugar lactose. This can be achieved by changing the absorptions of some proteins. Lac repressor can bind to major groove of lac operon which results in inhibiting the transcription of mRNA for Lac proteins; this is the case when there is no lactose present. When lactose is available the protein allo-lactose goes to bind to lac operon that able it to change in shape of lac repressor, consequently it will not be able to bind to the lac operon, this is called
(Schlegel & Pardee, 1986) Furthermore, their research suggests that a process, called indirect immunofluorescence, was able to produce phosphoproteins. DNA replication was also said to have stopped in the synthesis phase cells before caffeine had the ability to start premature chromosome condensation. Pardee and Schlegel further explained how caffeine has the ability to reverse the restricting of DNA synthesis, in which results from the research with two drugs called hydroxyurea and aphidicolin. They used these two drugs to relate to the essentialness of DNA synthesis inhibition to premature chromosome condensation. (Schlegel & Pardee, 1986) In
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.
Cycloheximide applies its impact by interfering with the translocation steps in protein synthesize (development of two tRNA atoms and mRNA in connection to the ribosome), hence blocking translational prolongation. Cycloheximide is generally utilized as a part of biomedical research to repress protein synthesize in eukaryotic cells except for S.aureus and E.coli contemplated in vitro (i.e. outside of microorganism). It is cheap and works quickly. Actually after the interaction of 72 hours, both growth of E.coli and S.aureus will be inhibited by Cycloheximide antibiotic.
INTRODUCTION To divide, a cell must grow, replicate its genetic material (DNA), and split into two daughter cells. Cells perform these tasks in an organized series of steps that make up the cell cycle. In eukaryotic cells, or cells with a nucleus, the stages of the cell cycle are divided into two major phases: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase. • During interphase, the cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA. • The mitotic (M) phase, divides the cell DNA into two sets and its cytoplasm, forming two new cells.
INTRODUCTION Genome is the sum total of all genetic material of an organism. The genome may be either DNA or RNA. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes always have a DNA genome but viruses may either have a DNA genome or RNA genome. There are two distinct parts in eukaryotic genome, one is the nuclear genome and the other is the organelle genome, which is of two types: mitochondrial and chloroplast genome respectively. This paper focuses on the organelle genome of eukaryotes, that is, mitochondrial and chloroplast genome.
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.
The other gene codes for resistance in tetracycline and is expressed in aerobically grpwn E. coli, but not in anaerobically grpwn E. coli or in bacteroides. The transposon of Tn4351 was originally detected in E. coli which carried an unstable chimeric plasmid, pSS-2. The mobilization of pSS-2 from onestrain of E. coli