Violence has long been used by governments and authoritarian regimes around the world to achieve political goals and seek legislative control. These regimes assert control by carrying out assassinations, mass murders, and staged violence. However, the psychological effect on the country's population is much more than fear of death at the hands of political parties and leaders, it is fear of life itself. The nation becomes gripped by an ineffable fear and distrust where everyone, including trusted neighbors and friends, could turn individuals in for perceived disloyalty to the government. This idea is most demonstrated by the actions of Pinochet's dictatorship of Chile throughout the 1970's and 1980's.
Yet, due to the nature of the liberal takeover and the policies such governments enacted, 19th-century Latin American liberals established a constitutional foundation for future authoritarian governments, sabotaged industry and economic stability by opening trade, and expanded class and racial inequality. Thus, while liberalism enriched and benefited the elite, it failed and harmed the lower classes: the peasants and the poor. Latin American society, due to the nature of colonisation and Spanish ruling practices, long experienced the rule of strongmen, first as the conquistadores, then as caudillos. Liberalists initially fought back against
The trials and tribulations of the Trueba family and those around them are a microcosm of Chilean society— what happens to them happens to the rest of the country, and for the same reasons. On a larger scale, it could be said that the forces which would inevitably collide— first, with the election of a socialist president, then the military coup— were analogous to forces which were destined to end in conflict in many parts of the world in the second half of this century. Social movements and the desire for equality and freedom (and elements opposed to upsetting the status quo) are not unique to any one country, culture or society. Because of its scope, both in terms of time covered (three quarters of this century) and the variety of characters and their interactions, The House of the Spirits provides the background for understanding, on a more human, personal level, how and why the events evolved as they did. From Esteban Trueba's political views, his treatment of women and his overall conservative bent to those characters who would challenge Trueba and his cronies and pay the price in the end, The House of the Spirits poses important questions about the consequences of one's political beliefs.
These men understood that Villa's skills could be used as a guerilla fighter during the revolution. Since Porfirio Diaz, the sitting president of Mexico, had created much of the current problems for the poor and Francisco Madero promised change for the lower classes, Pancho Villa joined Madero's cause and agreed to be a leader in the revolutionary
Communism believed in a classless society, while Fascism followed a dictatorship, but maintaining a dictatorship required the suppression of the people. Fascist ideology believed that “war alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to meet it,” which requires constant violence to prove power (Lualdi 236). By 1924, Mussolini was able to gain 65% of the vote for fascism, but in 1933, the Nazi party only gained 44% of the vote, and even with a minority ruling party was able to gain control of the government. Both Mussolini and Hitler came into power through legal means, but Mussolini was named Prime Minister in the hopes of avoiding war but after gaining control. Yet after their legal rise into power, they used coercion and violence to further their fascist rulings.
Upton Sinclair took the themes of Waged Slavery and Social Darwinism to create this visual representation of a Jungle in the form of political machines and corrupt bosses that would abuse of immigrants that were in the search for the “American Dream.” Just like Upton said, “All art is propaganda. It is universally and inescapably propaganda; sometimes unconsciously, but often deliberately, propaganda,”(Sinclair) and indeed this art is propaganda that served it’s purpose of delivering a strong story on the behalf of the
In an effort to discourage allyship, captains encouraged sailors to use force to control slaves which later bred the invention of race. All the while captains reaped the enormous benefits of the capitalist system that was the slave trade. While it’s history may be still be a bit of a mystery, Marcus Rediker shows us the massive social and economic aftermath of the slave
Executive summary The conflict between Chile and Bolivia is one of the longest-running disputes in Latin America. This paper is going to explain how the conflict started since the War of the Pacific, where Bolivia lost an important part of its territory. And until today is still claiming it, proceeding on international spheres likes the International Court in The Hague. This conflict has scaled in magnitude and it’s reflected in the resentment among the population of both countries. Background The region was developing independentist processes, so it was fundamental to define borders with neighbor countries.
Firstly, he puts light the crucial role of workers in the Chilean revolution, instead of focusing solely on the parties, Popular Unity and Allende, and therefore “furnishing more polemics or speculation about the behavior of the Chilean proletariat” (Paul Drake). Secondly, Winn presents another perspective on social transitions in Latin America, that is progressive and non-violent, differing from the majority of the literature focusing on violent military
Neo-liberalism is a fundamental economic ideology which stemmed from the University of Chicago Professor Milton Friedman and his “Chicago boys.”The theory of neoliberalism asserts itself on a consumer-based society where all industries and services within a state are privatized, including public government services such as education, healthcare, economic subsidies, etc. The principal aims of neo-liberalism are to allow private enterprise to flourish through the gained capacity to exploit resources and labor as a means of yielding the highest amount of capital. For such reasons, the neo-liberal economic theory mandates that taxes, tariffs, and regulations be slashed considerably; that any labor unions be dismantled, and that governments maintain
The spread of communist and socialist ideas promising a social system where peasants would have the same opportunities as those in Lima was an extremely powerful one. Socialism and communism were seen as an alternate form of government that could end extreme social inequality and injustice against the indigenous peasant populations in Peru. (Stern, 1998) As such, understanding the ethnic and class dynamic is essential to understanding the spread of the Shining Path. Gustavo Gorriti states in his book, The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru, which Abimael Guzman took advantage of the social inequality and extreme economic disparities in Ayacucho to advance his cause. Gorriti goes on to affirm that the economic system in Peru together with unpredictable government institutions allowed Shining Path to expand and recruit like-minded people from the countryside to
Some are willing to commit the most heinous crimes such as kidnapping or assassination or worse. However, one of the tactics I find the most demented are the suicide attacks; yes, attackers are even willing to lose their lives in order to supposedly cleanse. While not all are alive still, there have been a handful of masterminds behind the origin of al-Qaeda; Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri, the current leader, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and of course, the man of the hour, Osama bin Laden. While Osama was the
The motives of the suicide bombing were to cause fear and harm people in Manchester. These motives align with the short-term goals of ISIS, to discredit the Western world and to instill fear. Officials know that ISIS organized the attack because they claimed the attack after the