What is crime, why does it occur, and how can it cease? For years, various criminologist concluded ways in which he or she believed was the source of the problem. In fact, theorists like Albert Reiss and E. Ivan Niye, “tended to suggest that crime and delinquency could be expected in conditions where controls were not effective”. For example, disorganized cultures that have little social control, crime
There are many flaws that exist in the current criminal justice system. Many that need to be altered in order to insure that justice is issued indiscriminately. This paper will draw information from four sources, and compare the information drawn to Reiman’s beliefs. Then the paper will come to a final conclusion on how Reiman believes the criminal justice system should be fixed. Reiman’s discussion of crime in America begins with looking at the high crime rates and reviewing the excuses people make for this high rate.
Many of the chapters of the author focuses on racism and profiling which Palmiotto addresses as major concern. The author also takes focus on addressing the occurrence of both deadly and non-deadly use of force and how both are being used by the police. Psychological aspect is also explored by the author in concern with the use of force. It takes the side of restricting use of force by the police reform which relates to another source on taking the same
The stressors increase the negative emotions, which in turn create pressure for the purpose of a corrective action. The corrective actions mostly come in form of criminal activities that are applied in order to alleviate from the strain or to revenge the source of the stress. For instance, individuals that have been associated with chronic lack of employment mostly engage in crimes such as drug dealing or theft in order to obtain money that can be used to make them feel
Some of the flawed characteristics of a person that could imply the motive for a crime are a weak, a deviant and a strong superego. Along with Freud, Megargee and Blackburn also reveal in their work their outlook on the psychodynamic theory of crime. For example, Blackburn claims that people convicted of extremely violent crimes tend to have fewer previous offenses. That aligns with Megargee’s idea that some people cannot properly channel their anger’s expression and do so in a very extreme ways. That flaw could overlap with the flawed superego since an individual would not be able to self-restraint himself in the process of anger expression and go to the unthinkable ways to do that.
Crime occurs commonly in today’s society, due to this, criminologists are trying to understand what social factors cause crime. To solve this, there are many theories about what causes crime and why crime occurs in certain areas, however this paper only outlines two of them: Structural-Choice theory and Social Disorganization Theory. Structural-Choice Theory and Social Disorganization Theory: A Summary Structural-Choice theory, first proposed by Terance Meithe and Robert Meier in 1990, uses elements from rational-choice theory and opportunity perspectives to analyze the importance of the interaction between the variables. This theory is mostly used to predict victimization through structural and choice variables. The structural models in this
Crimes are classified differently by the law and by sociologist. “Sociologist classify crimes in terms of how they are committed and how society views the offenses” (Schaefer 163). While the law classifies crime in terms of what court holds jurisdiction, the age of the offender, the severity of the offense and the potential punishment. Sociologist classify crimes into 6 categories: victimless crimes, organized crime, white-collar and technology based crime, professional crime, hate crime, and transnational crime. One of the most controversial subject in this nation, is victimless crimes.
Weitzer is able to illuminate how there is a correlation between poverty and crime, “an interaction between (1) high neighborhood-level poverty and unemployment, (2) residents’ involvement in illicit survival strategies […], and (3) aggressive police practices – each of which contributes to popular alienation from and avoidance of the police, if not outright hostility toward them. This syndrome is more fundamental than the popular assertion that officers’ racial animus is the main problem.” (477). Because high crime areas have such a strong dislike and mistrust for the police, answering some calls become dangerous for the responding officers. While answering these calls officers become more alert and anxious. Most of the time when an officer makes an arrest or discharges his/her weapon it has nothing to do with race but it has everything to do with the crime.
The focus of this perspective is also on the offender. It involves harsh punishment for those who break the law. The thought is that the harsher the punishment is, the less likely someone would want commit a crime. This group of people want abolish legal restrictions on law enforcement, suchlike profiling people. Another thing they would like to accomplish is to diminish the exclusionary rule.
is likely that ex-offenders might relapse to criminal behaviorand return back to prison due to the difficulty and stress in managing a different yet normal life (Wikoff, Linhorst&Morani, 2012). This relapse to criminal behavior or reoffending after the offender receives necessary sanction or undergoes intervention for the previous crime is coined as recidivism (Maltz, 2001). Maltz (2001) also contends that recidivism is one of the most fundamental concepts in criminal justice. It results from psychological, social and economic consequences of the offence for the incarcerated individual (Rujjavanet, 2013). Existing studies on recidivism (New York Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2014; Maltz, 2001; Taylor, 2012) have consistently noted that unsuccessful reintegration and recidivism have been alarming problems confronting these correctional facilities.It has been established that one of the primary issues in the correctional services field is the reintegration of ex-prisoners (Shinkfield&Graffam, 2009).