I will be focusing mainly on migrant workers and how policies changed in response to them, and also explaining how extensive paperwork to enter a country is a method in which immigration policy orders society within the borders, examples mainly concerning the United States. It is important to have immigration policies as a form of protection, as states would argue. They are there to ensure the safety of
Pillar two International assistance and capacity-building (sect. III). Pillar three Timely and decisive response (sect. IV). These Pillars are developed to ensure that States do not cause harm to their own citizens and cause these four specified crimes and violations: Genocide, War crimes, Ethnic cleansing and Crimes against humanity.
Liberty The Constitution of the United States is a law for rulers and people, equally in war and in peace, and covers with the shield of its protection all classes of men, at all times, and under all circumstances. -Opinion of the Court, Ex Parte Milligan, 71 US 2 (1866) Authors who argue in favor of liberty over the security argument make compelling appeals to the values expressed in the Constitution. These authors conclude, even in times of war and crisis, that it is important for the Court to act to protect these values when the Executive branch begins to accumulate greater powers in times of conflict. Philip Heymann articulates this argument eloquently, examining the changes in the wake of 2001 and warning citizens about what may happen
Rules: With regard to international armed conflicts, the four Geneva Conventions (GC I to IV) and Additional Protocol I and II contain various provisions specifically dealing with both of Prisoners of War, Civilians protection to prevent any kind of violations that may happen toward them. The Forth Geneva convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War has set rules governing the issue of civilians who found themselves under enemy’s possession. Article 5 of the 4th GC has identified who are protected persons with putting conditions to be considered as protected with the privileges of having the statue of protected persons at article 27 of the same convention. Third Geneva Convention in particular has recognized group of rights with regarded to POWs such as the right to be humanely treated at article 13, correspondence at article 71, the right to gain a sufficient food in quantity and quality at article 26 and the right to not be subjected to torture and question at article 17 where every prisoner of war “when questioned on the subject, is bound to give only his surname, first names and rank, date of birth, and army, regimental, personal or serial number, or failing this, equivalent information” Moreover, the use of weapons and means that have indiscriminate effects such as poisonous gas and bombs which also would aggravate the suffering recognized as prohibited to use due to the amount of damage it causes upon civilians as well as the environment
The authorized intervention was granted by UN Security Council. Chapter VII of the Charter also provides one clear exception to the non-intervention principle by granting powers to the Security Council to determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, to maintain or restore international peace and security. The necessity of multilateral cooperation in dealing with international peace and security was widely accepted and the use of multilateral intervention became one of the mechanisms employed by the international community in dealing with crisis. The UN R2P:
We all know that the necessity of peacekeeping and the importance of sound legal justification for the employment of use of force has been a key issue in international law since the days of Grotius and his “Just War” doctrine. Increasing interdependency of states and the authority the United Nations Charter and Security Council results in a complex system of law where the legality of use of force depends as much on defensibility of the act as it does on the rules of international law governing use of force. Moreover, the right of self-defense, along with the principle of invitation for peacekeeping force’s assistance, which delineates the border between legitimate and illegitimate uses of force. Here before knowing the essence of the use of
In Chapter 1, “PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES Article 1” one of the points states that a purpose of the UN is to keep international unity and to remove anything that threatens peace (Nations, 1945). Even though at first international laws may seem to only include human rights, they are much more complex and they affect us in many different ways. There are two main types of international laws: Public International Law and Private International Law. Public International Law includes laws that
International human rights law (HRL) is applicable during times of peace; and International humanitarian law (IHL) is applicable during time of armed conflict, war, and occupation. These two laws are founded to complete each other and both are part of international law which recognizes relations between states. International human rights law and international humanitarian law are applicable in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, but Israel is trying to evade its responsibility in the application of them and violate them. International human rights law aims to protect the fundamental rights of individuals and groups from violations. It depends on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in1948, also there
This is the reason why many international organizations had been established and some are grouped together to focus and deal with statelessness. For considering example, the United Nations (UN) creates The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to be the competent authority within the UN System and has a responsibility to take care matters related to statelessness. Since the arise of the problem of statelessness. United Nations prescribed two most significant instruments of international law correlated to the statelessness issue including, the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and later on, the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. The UNHCR take a big role by have been increasing motivated to solve this problem.
Since ancient times the legal thought regarded the concept of death penalty as a measure necessary to protect fundamental values of the society. Along with the development of a state, state judicial system and regulations were developed as well, creating a two-fold purpose of the criminal law: punishment of a criminal and intimidation of population in order to prevent further possible crime commitment. These two initial positions are still present in the criminal law today and constitute the eternal debate around the topic of “for and against death penalty”. In this essay, I would like to briefly describe the two current positions along with the arguments and afterwards express my own opinion in that matter. By the modern times, two main theories were formed in relation to death penalty, the first one being the Deterrence Theory (Utilitarian justification) and the second one being the Retribution Theory (Kantian