Generalized Adaptation Syndrome: A Case Study

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Generalized adaptation syndrome involves a set of physical processes, which occur regardless of the physical response. When physical stress such as trauma, injury or disease stimulates the general adaptation syndrome, it initiates the stress response. Stress response is the response to the disruption of homeostasis caused by stress (Craft et al, 2013, p. 3175). The stress response of open fracture will trigger various responses via hypothalamus stimulate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis leading to alterations in Mr. Jensen’s comorbid conditions such as hypertension and Type 2 diabetes. The physical stress (fracture) will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, which will cause the vasoconstriction of…show more content…
Angiotensin I will activate Angiotensin II to cause vasoconstriction and to stimulate kidneys to release aldosterone. Aldosterone will retain sodium and water resulting in increased blood volume, which will elevate the blood pressure. At the same time, hypothalamus stimulates posterior pituitary gland also to release anti-diuretic hormone, which will also retain water resulting in increased blood volume and elevated blood pressure (Craft et al, 2013, p. 3191). However, Mr. Jensen takes anti-hypertension medicine i.e. Captopril (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme [ACE] inhibitor) which will inhibit the RAAS function leading to decreased blood volume and blood pressure. Moreover, due to open fracture on Mr. Jensen’s right leg, there is a possibility of significant blood loss, which can lead to hypovolaemia. Moreover, he is on aspirin (anticoagulant), which will contribute in increased blood loss. Hypovolaemia contributes to decrease in cardiac output, which results in decreased arterial and pulse pressure. Hence, the open fracture will cause hypotension to Mr. Jensen. (Sinert & Spektor,

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