The first step to understanding epilepsy is understanding the symptoms to it. If someone has a seizure for no reason and starts showing symptoms such as being confused (temporarily), staring “into thin air” for a longer period of time than normal, uncontrollable jerking of the arms and legs, losing consciousness, and developing anxiety or having more feelings of fear than normal; these symptoms followed by seizures are usual signs of epilepsy. For these seizures, they are typically categorized into focal or generalized seizures,
Status epilepticus is a dangerous condition where epileptic seizures follow one after another without recovery of consciousness between them or alternatively, seizures last too long. Status epilepticus occurs when the seizure occurs for more than 5 min or longer, individual goes into another seizure without recovery from the first and the repeated seizures occur for 30 min or longer. These seizure have an increased risk for death and are not likely to stop without the aid of medication. Most seizures last no longer that 2 min. Seizures are described as sudden onset of increased electrical discharge within the brain which causes loss of or change in consciousness and/or motor activity.
Symptoms Some of the common symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include fussiness or irritability, breathing problems, and pale or bluish skin. The baby may also start vomiting or refuse to eat. In some cases, the baby may have seizures, have difficulty staying awake, or experience paralysis. A baby who has fallen into a coma may have Shaken Baby Syndrome and needs medical attention right away. While some babies who have Shaken Baby Syndrome will show other symptoms of physical abuse, such as bruises, bleeding, or broken bones, sometimes you will not see physical symptoms of the injury.
The seizures associated with TLE consist of simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures. One particular type of simple partial seizure associated with TLE is an aura. An aura can be correlated with a warning, because it is a sensation which people get before another seizure. During a simple partial seizure,
In such a syndrome, the cerebellar vermis herniates into the foramen magnum, causes vocal cord paralysis (VCP) by compression of the brainstem and/or vagus nerves. The compression can either come from the cerebellar tissue itself or from the ensuing hydrocephalus. Most commonly, bilateral vocal cord paralysis is seen but unilateral paralysis is also possible.
In all of these cases, the brain is taken by the momentum of the MOI (mechanism of injury) and is effectively shaken. This stretches blood vessels and may damage cranial nerves. This is what is commonly referred to as a concussion. Some signs and symptoms of a concussion are identifiable impairment to sight and movement. The person may feel dazed, disoriented,
after one seizure if there is a high risk of having another seizure.Seizures and epilepsy are not the same. Epilepsy is a disease, rather than a disorder “An epileptic seizure is a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain” (ILAE). According to mayoclinic.org; Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder/ neurological disorder in which nerve cell activity in the brain becomes disrupted, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations and sometimes loss of consciousness. A single seizure doesn 't mean you have epilepsy. At least two unprovoked seizures are generally required for an epilepsy
Description and Diagnosis Epilepsy is a neurological disorder where the brain cell activity is disturbed, developing in mostly young children or older adults (Epilepsy Foundation, n. d.). The cause may stem from a brain injury or abnormality, genetics, or even unknown causes. There are different types of epilepsy such as generalized epilepsy where the seizure originates from both sides of the brain as compared to one area. A person has epilepsy if they have at least two unprovoked seizures more than 24 hours apart (Epilepsy Foundation, n. d.). There are many kinds of tests that can be used to evaluate epilepsy such as CTs, MRIs, EEGs, blood tests, spinal taps, and genetic tests.
Many varying kinds of head injuries can cause epileptic seizures, or other traumatic diseases, disorders and even paralyzation. The most usual form of head injury is a concussion. A concussion can cause many forms of disorders of the brain that are potentially fatal. A concussion is a head injury which occurs when the brain hits the skull when contact is made or when the head is moved quickly and abruptly (Reynolds para 2). The most common way to receive a concussion is from contact sports, such as football, basketball, hockey, and baseball.
Primary head injury is present at the time of the trauma and is seen as a transient or an irreversible damage to the brain but secondary brain injury is usually as a result of accompanying peri-lesional oedema or raised intracranial pressure or parenchymal ischemia affecting varying parts of the brain. These secondary changes can cause tonsillar herniation especially in cases with raised intracranial pressure and may eventually culminate in the death of the patient. [14-15] The current trend of evaluation of patients with head injury includes Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear medicine. However, cranial CT has emerged the mainstay in the diagnostic work-up of patients with head injury, particularly in the initial assessment of the head injured due to its availability, short image acquisition time and its accuracy in the detection of skull fractures and intracranial haemorrhage. [15 –