It is safe to assume that CRISPR will be used to gather further knowledge about the genome and study targeted areas of DNA. Another central aspect that needs additional research is the connection between genetic variations (genotype) and their effect on the human phenotype. Understanding this is crucial in order to alter features of the human body. Ultimately, CRISPR is still a long way from being utilised as tool to redesign the human phenotype, let alone meddle in even more complicated matters such as intelligence. In addition, the overall ethical and legal point of view is an aspect that cannot be
In order to formulate an opinion on this much controversial topic we should understand how genetic screening works and consider both the benefits and risks of this matter. Ethical, social, and medical factors all play a role in determining this. Genetic screening is where DNA samples are used to identify gene or genes related to a genetic disease or disorder. It determines risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder and detects some genes known to cause genetic disorders. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a specific type of genetic testing done in-vitro process.
There are different types of process to clone an animal, which will be explained in this research paper. The topic, cloning, have an ethical open debate. There are educators, religions, and others groups talked about the ethical problems that cloning had. The society constantly asked about the accepted of human cloning. Some economics groups insist about the cost of the process and all the money a country need to clone an animal or human.
As Susan Aldridge illustrates in her article “Human Cloning”, therapeutic cloning is the creation of an embryo which will later develop into tissues and cells for the purpose of research. On the contrary, reproductive cloning is the creation of an embryo - for the purpose of reproduction - which will later “develop to term rather than being harvested for its cells” (Aldridge). While researchers and scientists rarely admit as much, the resources being used, the time being spent, and the groups of people being affected by human cloning weigh far more than the result and uses of it; therefore, any researches and procedures correlating with human cloning must be prohibited. First of all, human cloning has yet to be perfected into a procedure that can be adopted for practical uses, and the reason for that is due to its extremely difficult process which requires countless number of trials. According to Wesley J. Smith, author of the article “If
This allows for variation in species and a better way to cope with changes and stresses in the environment In conclusion, Epigenetics is a double edged sword. It has both positive aspects that have helped the human population survive and grow but it has also has caused disease and unstable DNA. With this knowledge, Scientists are testing the possible of artificially modifying the epigenome through gene therapy. This can cure diseases such as cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s and creating a new human population that is able to adapt to various environmental
It gives a significant piece of evidence for the chromosome theory of inheritance. There are many reasons why gene mapping is important. Firstly, it is the anatomy of human genome and it is useful in the analysis of genetic diseases. It is also useful in the development of gene therapy and it gives clinically useful information about linkage. Gene mapping is the first step of identifying a gene.
Gene transfer is to transfer a gene from one DNA molecule to another DNA molecule. Gene transfer represents a relatively new possibility for the treatment of rare genetic disorders and common multifactorial diseases by changing the expression of a person's genes. In 1928, Griffith reported that a nonpathogenic pneumoccocus strain could become pathogenic when it was mixed with cells of heat-killed pathogenic pneumoccocus, which suggested that the pathogenic genetic material could be transformed from the heat-killed pathogenic pneumoccocus to the nonpathogenic strain (Griffith, 1928). This is the first report for gene transfer observation. However, the transforming substance was not identified in these experiments.
For example, the article “Animal Testing has a purpose” states, “Today the (Food and Drug Administration) FDA sets higher standards for drug testing. Before a drug can even make it to the animal testing stage, it must first pass metabolic studies that prove the drug will be safe in human tissue. These new regulations are designed to save human lives.” This shows that animal testing is necessary to find cures, and save lives and we as people are making laws to do what is safe, right and responsible to get the answers we need. Animals are being used for testing in a thoughtful way. When a drug is approved to be tested on an animal, animal tests are done.
Germ-line therapy allows genetic amendment to be passed down to the offspring by injecting mitochondrial DNA into a fertilised egg and has been banned in most countries. Somatic-cell therapy is similar to organ transplantation as it alters the genome of cells of individual organs or tissues and prevents passing down of modified or injected genes to the offspring. However, since genetic engineering is still in its experimenting process, much research has to be done as the negative impacts it might bring in the future is vague due to inadequate knowledge on genes. According to Gyngell (2015), editing genes may be detrimental to both the gene pool and to children. There is no guarantee that genes useful in one generation would continue to be beneficial in the next generation.
This essay has illustrated the benefits which are having the chance of removing defective genes and also having higher healing rate even for serious injuries. Whilst the disadvantages would include facing ethical issues as well as premature aging happening on cloned people. It is clarified that the technology of human cloning would have an inevitable dramatic impact on the society. For a varieties of reasons declared, a huge number of people believed that human cloning is against the nature and also violating human rights. Hence, this kind of disagreement should be solved by condemning improper operations of cloning for an example, criticizing the act of scientists who are abusing their position to clone human without reasonable purposes and having ‘scientific research’ as their excuse.