In cancer cells there are promoter regions where free methylation occurs and genes that should not be turned off are turned on. This epigenetic change results in tumours rapidly growing which is an offset for cancer. It is important to note that the methylation doesn’t change the sequence of DNA but rather cause a mechanism for mutations to happen. There is an increase in changes of epigenetics as one grows older which increases the chances of certain diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Mental retardation and epigenetics are also linked Epigenetic change can lead to the mutation of the FMR1 gene which controls cognitive functions.
Stimulation of the TSH receptor also signals the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid hormones. However, the production of TSI is not regulated by the normal feedback mechanism. The continuous stimulation of thyroid gland by TSI causes hyperthyroidism. b) TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin These autoantibodies prevent TSH from binding to its receptor. Some forms of TBII mimic the action of TSH and stimulate the secretion of thyroid hormones, whereas other forms inhibit thyroid cell function.
Genetic Engineering is a process where we manually remove our gene of interest from an organism and insert it into another organism. This results in the organism possessing the particular trait we want from the organism. Applications of genetic engineering can be found all around us. They can range from certain crops that are pest resistant to the food with higher nutritional value and even to the medicine that we consume. Genetic engineering began in 1973 when Herb Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first recombinant deoxyribonucleic (DNA) organism.
Genetic mutations occurring in any of these three telomerase genes- TERT, TER, or dyskerin; or telomerase-associated proteins can result in compromised activity of telomerase resulting in low levels of telomerase and insufficient telomere maintenance. This can manifest in one of a number of telomere syndromes such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and dyskeratosis congenita (DC) (Tomlinson et
Immortalisation is an important step toward malignant transformation of human cells and depends intensively on telomere maintenance (Queisser. 2013). Neoplastic cells acquire mutations that deregulate cell cycle control and increase cell proliferation. These cells require the maintenance of telomere length to facilitate their rapid division. In human cells there are two mechanisms in which telomeres are
Genetic engineering is the changing of characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material, or genome. Scientists have been genetically modifying basically everything from plants to animal and to humans. Genetic engineering, while it does have benefits to help the human race, has the possibility to go out of control and must not be pursued due to the harm it can cause to society. Understanding the goals of genetic engineering and
One of the ethical issues of today that the medical field is facing is about genetic engineering. A genetic engineering technology also known as genetic modification is a way in which the organism’s genetic genome, a complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is being directly manipulated using biotechnology. You can customize your offspring by having the opportunity to choose which genetic trait your unborn child should posses, best examples are gender, eyes and the color of the hair. Genetic engineering in lay man’s term is designer baby. The idea of genetic modification has started to cure illnesses by replacing an unhealthy DNA of an unborn child to a healthy one to eliminate the occurrence of diseases that can be carried out hereditarily
‘Ethnodevelopment’ refers to the right of local people, including ethno-cultural groups to participate in the development process on their own approaches. The approach was formulated within Latin American critical anthropologists to address various problems of unequal development of local or indigenous people and other marginalised groups (Seymour-Smith 1986: 97).Warren, Slikkerveer & Brokensha (1995) work is also based on this ethnodevelopment paradigm, in which, a cultural dimension is integrated in the process of development. Development’ as it is understood today is a Western concept. It does not reflect the social, cultural and historical realities of the people. Therefore, ethnodevelopment proposes a new approach which integrates culture and development ( Cf.
The scientists hypothesized that drug metabolism and genetic polymorphism of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are related to each other. Also, that mutations in gene coding for DMEs may result in variants with high, low or no activity.  The methods used in these experiments were as