1.4.4 The three super-strategies of the politeness theory According to Leech, politeness is basically strategies used to avoid conflict and according to the degree of effort put in the words used to avoid conflicts, it can be measured. (Leech, 1980, p. 19). In order to mitigate the effect of the speaker’s words, he or she has to adopt strategies that can alleviate the tension; therefore, according to Brown and Levinson: There are three main strategies of politeness, ‘positive politeness’ (roughly, the expression of restraint), ‘negative politeness’ (roughly, the expression of restraint), and ‘off-record (politeness)’ (roughly, the avoidance of unequivocal impositions), and claim that the uses of each are tied to social determinants, specifically
So, the laws of having a pleasing personality simply can be proved by a smile. Being agreeable is important too. We have to listen to others, ask them questions and be a member of the conversation. The complement is the sweetest thing a person can do. Also, encourage people and let them feel that they are important can show a great support for them.
One goal of this essay is also to review some of the more basic and common rules of polite behavior in business. These rules may differ from person to person or in different situations, but there is also a rule of good manners in general to recognize and always keep in mind: “(…) do unto others as you would have them do unto you” (Manners: The Importance of Manners, 2014). 2.2 The Definition of Etiquette “Etiquette means behaving yourself a little better than is absolutely essential.” (Will Cuppy) The word etiquette derives from the French estiqu meaning to attach or stick. It describes “conventional requirements as to social behavior; proprieties of conduct as established in any class or community or for any occasion” (Bickerstaff Glover, n.d.). Etiquette is the fruit of manners, and it deals directly with kindness, consideration, elegance and style.
''Brown and Levinson (1978,1987), has distinguished between positive and negative politeness. Both types of politeness involve maintaining -or redressing threats to- positive and negative face, where positive face has been defined as the addressee's 'perennial desire that his wants . . . should be thought of as desirable'' (p. 101), and negative face as the addressee's ''want to have his freedom of action unhindered and his attention unimpeded'' (p. 129).
It is a strategy of speaking which uses a metaphorical extension of intimacy to imply common ground or sharing of wants to be a limited extent. It is used to make the hearer feels good about himself, his interests or possessions. It is usually used in situations where the audience knows each other very well. Negative politeness strategy is oriented towards the hearer’s negative face and emphasizes avoidance of imposition on the hearer. This strategy uses indirect language and removes the speaker from the potential to be imposing.
In other language, it means politeness can be either linguistics or actions taken by people based on the social system and rules applied in the society or culture. Besides that, politeness acts as modus vivendi that allows and maintains conflicting parties to coexist in peace. This view is supported by Elisabeth Grande (2010) which claimed that taking care, being open-minded as well as hospitable to each other is within our nature of human being. Previous researchers pointed out politeness is elucidated as conflict avoidance method in a way that reflects Western social norms (Wierzbicka, 1985; Mao, 1994). However, regardless of either Western or Eastern,
Thus, by nature, people are good… all of us! Remember, we are all a creation of His image and likeness, which is all-good. Something certainly just came wrong that made us impure along the way while living our own lives, not to mention the imperfectness of our
Pride is directly related with identity. Now it is time for the community to return from the general consideration of sympathy to its influence on pride and humiliation in those cases when these affects are aroused by praise or blame, good or bad reputation. We can note the following: any quality for which a person receives praise from another, in itself is always capable of generating pride in him, if only he really has it. According to Anselom (1981), art is propagated more because it gives hope to the country. It gives a socially acceptable way out of aggression and other negative feelings.
Nevertheless, instead of saying it directly, he chooses an indirect way. The purpose of such utterance is to show either respect to a hearer or, as in this example, to underline a speaker’s higher social status. ‘Please, sit and be comfortable.’- This utterance is an ask. Karla asks Idriss to sit down, in a direct way- by using imperative. Although the speech act is direct, Karla adds phrases like please and be comfortable that show her respect to Idriss, she performperforms a negative face saving act towards her hearer.
‘Positive politeness’ is expressed by satisfying ‘positive face’ in two ways: 1) by indicating similarities amongst interactants; or 2) by expressing an appreciation of the interlocutor’s self-image. The different types of positive politeness strategies are (e.g., noticing or attending to hearer, seeking agreement, avoiding disagreement). In Negative politeness the speaker minimizes the threat to the negative face to show respect and also not to show an imposition on the listener or it expresses respect and consideration, being pessimistic, minimizing the imposition and giving deference, are the examples of negative politeness strategies. (Brown & Levinson 1987,