The portrayal of family, family life and gender roles that are showed in advertisement influence children reinforcing gender stereotypes. The expectations and the concept about our life are not shaped only from experiences and impressions, but also from what the media is presenting to us. Advertisements have a significant affect over the society today, since they are everywhere and free for the viewers. Family and family life takes a big part of advertisement, because are whole new unit and target to the market. It is from a strategic importance that marketing management strategy suggests analyzing and adapting marketing communications to the family lifecycle, decidions making, consumer specialization, and gender roles, house holds or families (Arnould, Borgerdon, 2007).
In their article about gender role portrayal in Disney animated movies England, Descartes and Collier-Meek have referred to the constructivist approach of Martin and Graves which proposes 'that children develop beliefs about the world based on their interpretations of observations and experiences, and therefore, viewing stereotyped or egalitarian depictions of gender roles will influence children's ideas about gender' (2001,
enjoyment. Play can also be considered a rehearsal for acting-out real life events – such can be seen when children play house or school (Parsons, 2011). Also, play is so important and essential that it is included in the United Nation Convention of the Rights of the Child as stated in Article 31 (Leisure, Play and Culture): Children have the right to relax and play and to join in a wide range of cultural, artistic and other recreational activities (www.unicef.org). According to Bergen &Fromberg (2006), play is important to the optimum development of children. Unfortunately, though there is abundant research evidence showing that play supports young children’s social, emotional, physical and cognitive development, it has often ignored or addressed
Through the evaluation of moral and ethical undertones, it is evident that fairy tales positively and negatively affect the mindset of children. Fairy tales such as Little Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, and Snow White, have all become household stories. They started out as small tales to tell at night, and have turned into big businesses, with movies, tv shorts, soundtracks, even plays on Broadway. Each story has left us with a message that both consciously and subconsciously have left some long lasting mark on us. Whether that be through the plotline itself, or even through its imagery, fairy tales seem to have a great impact on us from our first interactions with the stories.
With the growth of the Internet and the widespread of television, advertisers can substantially target the ears and eyes of young children. Children are attracted to commercials that view goods and services they like and want such as candy and toys. Producing advertisements directed toward children that indirectly influence their materialistic behavior to increase the sales of the advertised goods and services; this is considered as one of the persuasive techniques advertisers use to deceive children. Furthermore, there was a recent research study conducted on young children, where they were divided into two groups. Empowered children, children who can rationally process commercials and are referred to as skilled consumers, where they were put into the group that was exposed to intended advertisements.
Modern developmental psychology owes an enormous amount to the work of Lev Vygotsky. The research that his theories continue to generate has far reaching implications for education and parenting, providing a valuable insight into children’s development. By challenging the behaviourist paradigm of the time, that children were merely passively responding to stimuli (Skinner, 1957, as cited in Lawton, 1978), Vygotsky opened new avenues of thought into the internal processes that governed children’s behaviour (Gredler & Shields, 2008) and the important influence of culture in raising a child. Vygotsky believed that children are born with certain innate abilities such as sensation and undirected attention, which he called ‘elementary mental functions’ (Vygotsky, 1962). These were considered to be merely reactions to the child’s immediate situation rather than an attempt to communicate or achieve goals.
These movies are molding the ideas of gender portrayal among the children. Disney and its princess have been identified as a powerful influence on children (Lacroix, 2004). These movies are contributing to a new “girlhood” that is largely defined by gender roles and consumption of related messages (McRobbie, 2008). Thus, the Disney Princess films and its portrayal of gender role have an important implications on children (Hubka, Hovdestad, & Tonmyr, 2009). There have been several informative researchers that address gender role portrayals in children’s media.
Television viewers, accordingly, are presented to the broadcast messages both by seeing and hearing. Accordingly, they are more prone to be ruled by the philosophies originating from television projects. Consequently, the primary suspicion of cultivation theory is that the anecdotal adaptation of the world telecasted on television has noteworthy effects on human discernment about reality. Gerbner et al (1978) contend that the dreary depictions of the world introduced on television are developed after some time in viewers' brain and add to the adjustments in the way they see the world. Along these lines, it
Comprehension is a essential factor required to form attitudes or change attitudes,memory, intentions and behaviour. It includes many factors like message,processing the message and the ability to understand the message by the target audience.Comprehension has two orientations.One is the Subjective and the other is Objective.Subjective Comprehension means the meanings derived by a particular individual through the activation and processing of mental concepts related to the message.Objective comprehension is the grasping or extracting meanings from the message delivered by the advertiser.Kara Chan(2000)54have found that children (aged 7–8 years) start to understand what advertising is and also know the persuasive objective of television