Grand theorists seek to develop all-encompassing theories that can apply to society at large. However, because grand theories are so broad, it does not allow for the development of working hypotheses which can then be empirically confirmed by conducting research. Merton provides an alternative method to sociological theory by introducing theories of the middle range. Theories of the middle range are an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research. Middle range theories are principally used in sociology to guide empirical inquiry.
In the nineteenth century modern science, which is based on scientific methods, took the place of the appeals to divine and religions. The rapid social change and the great success of natural scientific approaches encouraged people to explore the social world with more systematic, rational and empirical methods which results in the emergency of social science (Benton and Craib, 2001:22). Due to the lack of formalized rules for studying societies, sociologists developed a series of principles for research which could help them explore different social phenomena (Bilton et al, 2002:444). Emile Durkheim, whose conception of sociology was one of the earliest attempts to explain how the society could be studied scientifically, set out his methodological
The social imagination is a basic skill that enables people to understand the larger historical scene. C. Wright Mills introduces this idea in his book titled The Sociological Imagination from Charles Lemert’s edition. Mill’s argues that the first impression of imagination, embodies the idea of understanding for individuals, he then counters that same argument by saying that, ‘human nature[is] frightening broad’ (Pp 267).
The problem of induction is based on the ‘bucket theory of the mind’ roughly it goes like this "there is nothing in our mind which has not entered through our senses". "But we do have expectations and we strongly believe in regularities". Popper has three theses to this problem the first one is , there is no rationally justifiable method of induction the second one is, there is no reliable method of induction and lastly there is a critical method of science that is
On the other hand, there are some counterpart studies which are more inclusive even though they are limited. J.J Weber argues that “Categories such as ‘black’ and ‘white’, or ‘foreign’ and ‘native’, as with all binary oppositions, are socially constructed, and the most important question is perhaps the one of power: who has the power to impose his or her categories? Who defines where the boundaries between categories lie?”(Weber 2015:56). First part of the quote corroborates my dissertation by emphasizing the feature of artificial race and second part that is questioning the power refers social classes which I am going to study on to fill the gap with field work. He continues that “the verb perceive emphasizes that national belonging and national identity is a mental and emotional matter (ibid.54).
J. Eysenck, who felt that in order to enhance our understanding of problem solving behavior, there is a need to assume acientific research methods and entirely reassess psychoanalytic theory. Eysenck put much effort in classifying human behavior rather than attempting to understand the individual. He attempted to classify human behavior using the concepts of trait and type (p.371). Eysenck 1967 (cited in Singh, 2005, p.126) “identifies the major component of personality features. For instance, people who are considered as an extrovert according to Eysenck’s extroverted type are believed to have charecteristics such as sociability, liveliness, and excitability,” according to Boeree (2006), Eysenck’s hypothesis points to the fact that extroversion/ introversion is the matter of inhibition and excitation in the brain itself.
C. Wright Mills wanted to understand how transformations in our society or around the world could affect our everyday lives. This curiosity led to Mills doing research, asking questions, and eventually coining the term “sociological imagination”, which he describes as a way to help emphasize the value of adopting a sociological perspective for understanding the world around us. He believed one of the key ways people could understand society and social change was to apply this social imagination. We as people normally think of our own problems as being a private matter of character, chance, or circumstance, and we overlook the fact that these may be caused in part by, or are at least occurring within, a specific cultural and historical context.
These ideas leading from Sir Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes. The ideas of John Locke also coincide with the empiricist view that there are simple ideas that are from sensory qualities and complex ideas coming from several simple ideas. This could mean to say that they were atomists because atomism is reducing complexity to its simplest basic elements. Which is the assumption of many ideas for psychology for example John Watson’s behaviorism. Locke also had a view of empiricist philosophy because he had the idea that those who have different experiences view the world differently.
His ambition for universal equality, collective justice, and classless society transfixed me. I never thought that a classless society could be possible; however, my understanding of his work leads me to envisage the possibilities of a classless society. Marx’ work demonstrates a man who genuinely wants societal change. “The goal of sociology would not simply be to scientifically analyze or objectively describe society, but to use a rigorous scientific analysis as a basis to change it” (Little & McGivern, 2013,
Weber is regarded as one of the founding fathers of sociology along with Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. But unlike Marx and Durkheim, Weber believed that the study of society should focus on social action and not so much on the social structures. He argued that structures in society were not independent of individuals but were an effect of interplay of human actions and it was sociology’s task to find the true meaning of those actions. If Weber somehow came to know about the influence his theories wield in the field of management today, he would be more than bemused.
The Real Music Behind Beats In the book, The Engaged Sociologist, Korgan & White (2015) argues that by establishing the sociological eye, “we are able to look beneath the surface of society and see how it really works” (1). The book goes further and suggests someone who has developed a sociological eye understand that a person’s self-belief, career goals, education level, and values are formed by the culture and society that person has grown up in. In this entry, I will explain how my wireless Beats earphones abruptly became strange.