The development of Fascist ideology cannot be considered independently of the political ambitions of the men who engineered it. Fascism was developed as the specific means that could bring about not only the overthrow of liberal democracy in Italy and the economic and political advancement of the Italian nation, but more importantly, the rise to political power of a certain group of people, who, once in power, revised their doctrine in ways to maintain the power of their regime. As Benito Mussolini, the founder of Fascism, fully admitted, ideas were only tools, and Fascism was the tool he used to service his ends of revolution in Italy and his personal rise to
They had to go.” As quoted from the dystopian political movie V for Vendetta directed by James McTeique, V believes he is not a terrorist and is a freedom fighter by referring the terrorists as degenerates. With a pursuit of dominant ideology along with government treating him as a huge threat, V is a heroic terrorist in view of his motivation and political affiliation, acts of violence, strategies, and his rationality. Paik argues that V’s acts of violence are driven by the “catastrophes and pressures under which a shattered and traumatized society comes to accept state terror”. Accordingly, he believes that terrorists induced by social injustice are mistaken for all accusations, instead, the government should bear the accountability. Also, “Such neglect can make the resort to inhuman policies appear necessary and inevitable, once a society loses the capacity to distinguish reasonable self-preservation from a destructive and futile defense of unjustifiable expectations.” (Paik 181) This quote suggests that heroes or revolutionary terrorists are under the motives of
In Plato’s dialogue Republic, Book X, the main topic discussed is what type of republic would produce the best people and the best way of life. By having this written in dialogue format, readers are given the ability to think, with the speakers, about these ideas being put forth. The main idea Socrates discusses and believes in is that art should be banned from the republic because it’s imagery is imitated, unreal, and by the end of the dialogue he calls it out to be the works of wizards. To understand Socrates ideas of this topic, we must first understand the classification of objects and producers. According to him, the three types of producers are gods, craftspeople, and imitators (artists).
I will take three different understandings of politics and morality as presented by Walzer and will analyze works of Machiavelli, Weber and Camus respectively. In the paper “Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands” Walzer argued that no one can govern innocently, however, there is a possibility to make the right political decision. This will be true from the utilitarian point of view despite the fact that politician who had done it would still be considered as guilty of a moral wrong. Moreover, it would be wrong to think that dirty hands problem is occasional and not every politician faces it. On the contrary, it has systematic and frequent character (Walzer 1973:162).
1984 represents a dystopian novel as well as George Orwell 's attempt to warn people about the submissive society in which they could turn into by letting authorities take control over them. Considering the literary value of this text, it is worthy to analyze it profoundly focusing on the controversial topic of social relationships; particularly in love manifestation as it was strictly forbidden. Writing a letter based on this book approaching to its fifth chapter from the second part aims to emphasize the drastic changes that the pridden in the hypothetical world of the author. The protagonist, Winston Smith, suffered throughout the development of the story because of Julia, his love. He demonstrated the natural conduct of humans which consists on the survival instinct characterized by acting without thinking about the repercussions of decisions.
Therefore, it is imperative to clarify that Machiavelli only justifies lying and deception when it’s outcome benefits the public. For example, lying to the American people that Iraq possesses weapons of mass destruction, invading Iraq on these claims, then worsening the state of Iraq only to find out they had no weapons, is considered immoral in Machiavelli’s definition. Had this lie by George W. Bush resolved conflicts, or at least alleviated tensions in in Iraq, his decision to lie could have been justified as moral. For Machiavelli, the end (the benefit of the public), justifies the means (the use of lying). Early in the Prince, Machiavelli states, “I will simply conclude by saying that a ruler needs to have the support of the populace, for otherwise he has nothing to fall back on in times of adversity” (pg.25).
In his classic essay, “Civil Disobedience,” Henry David Thoreau, spoke about the lack of facts behind voting within the government. Thoreau said, “All voting is a sort of gaming, like checkers or backgammon, with a slight moral tinge to it” (Thoreau p. 22). As a middle-class citizen, Stempel was laughed at by the court for expressing the truth. First-class citizen, Charles Van Doren, however, was revered and praised for finally telling the truth. This verifies Thoreau’s beliefs regarding voting and court situations.
To begin with, Paul Taggart asserted that populism is “particularly liable to the politics of personality” due to its “lack of key values.” As he stated, a strong charismatic leader is a main feature of every populist party. This argumentation is with accordance of the study of both Latin American and European populism by Takis S. Pappas, a professor of comparative politics, who stated that “populism obtains when a certain political entrepreneur is able to polarize politics by creating a cleavage based on the interaction between the people versus some establishment, thus forging a mass political movement.” For Pappas, charismatic leader has a special recognition of populism and its existing conditions in a certain country. Thus, is responsible for not only positive but also negative outcomes of the party. Nevertheless, some scientists such as Robert Barr, a professor of political science and international relations, argued against focusing solely on political leaders while attempting to define populism. For him, politicians certainly are immediately connected with populism, however, he claims they are not truly fundamental.
Legalists believed that the human nature is evil, so they thought that people only do good if they are forced to. They said that they had to use harsh punishments, to make people be afraid of doing the wrong thing. Legalists had a great impact on the government. They taught leaders to burn books , that was about different philosophy other than
Orwell feels that these kinds of words are most often used in art and literary criticism and political speeches. These words are meaningless because they force the reader to give the words the meaning and the writer can in a way hide behind words such as dead and living instead of writing black and white. These words are a way for the writer to avoid saying anything that can be attributed negatively in their text and if they are the writer can argue that the reader misunderstood their meaning. The words also become meaningless because they might be used dishonestly. This sort of writing makes it so that words have dual meanings.