It can be difficult to understand what it means to be a discourse or what communities fall under that category, and that is why I feel like John Swales’ definition of a discourse community is the the one that makes the most sense and the one that almost anybody can apply to communities they are part of and determine if they are discourses or not. Even though Gee and Porter had good points regarding discourses and good arguments, one almost had to be a linguist to fully understand what they were saying. They did help Swales get his point across more clearly in some instances though. Thanks to Swales I now know for a fact that my English 1113 class is a discourse community and I achieved that by following the six rules Swales presented as necessary to be a discourse community. Gee, James P. “Literary, Discourse, and Linguistics.” Writing About Writing, A College Reader.
Name: Tutor: Course: Date: Infallibilism The philosophical term infallibilism is the argument that knowledge needs individuals to satisfy some level of infallibilism condition. However, the aspectsinfallibilism and fallibilism are often used in the literature of epistemology. Both terms are rarely defined and because of this, they receive diversified meanings that an individual may find the statements to be contradicting. All epistemologists virtually endorse the aspect of fallibilism. Despite the dramatic variations in the substantive accounts of the epistemologists, they accept that the Gettier Problem can only be solved when a belief is not conflicted with warranty and false, which is the definition of infallibilism.
Interlanguage theory Before going to the other concerns, first we will have a look at the Interlanguage Theory as it is very important in the second language with relation to SLA. The term interlanguage was used by Selinker (1972) when he described the rules of structure at the Intermediate grammar level given for the learners of second language to achieve their target language. In spite of the inadequacy of the nature of this grammar, Selinker says that it makes a unity of the whole as this grammar is driven through many psychological mechanisms and it is not developed in the natural way. Adjemian presented Selinker's philosophy with some modification that the second language learner can use the rules of L1 in the L2 if the learner gets such
The fourth and final aspect is the "ontological" aspect. Out of the four aspects Polyani gives, I found this one to be the most complex. The "ontological" aspect is the whole understanding of tacit knowledge. It is the purpose and the meaning beyond and establishes what the relation of what tacit knowledge is. In the reading, Polyani explains that the way we view an object is because of our awareness of efforts in our bodies.
Images are the result of particular means of understanding and attributing meaning to the world, they are interpretations of the world. Realising this made the term ‘visuality’ become increasingly important in visual culture theory. Visuality refers “to the ways in which both what is seen and how it is seen are culturally constructed” (Rose, 2012, p. 2), an image never being fully objective and candid. The ways in which the world is viewed and made to be seen by a certain discipline are called by Gillian Rose (2003) ‘disciplinary visualities’. In geography, there is a great variety of such ways and they are created by the relationships between the geographers, the images and the audience (Rose, 2003, p. 213).
However, since historical events are connected in causes, effects, and influences, different historians communicate their knowledge to establish evidence of the causes, effects, and influences of an event. To make these conclusions, historians must use another important tool - reason. Reason requires language because one must think in an organized group of words when considering different concepts and making
Dichotomies as false reflections of reality: Scholars also argue that dichotomies are not concrete reality but rather assumptions and metaphors which hardly correlate with the reality, which is fluid and in which such fixed concrete categories are rarely found (Barbe 2001, Eckel and Weber 2007). Katharina Barbe (2001) suggest that there is a serious need to re-evaluate dichotomies before their repeated use since its use can lead us to misconceive “relationship between opposing hypothesis” (Wilkins 1982: 22 cited in Barbe 2001). In the case of the North-South divide, Julian Eckl and Ralph Weber argue that such divisions tend to simplify issues of global inequality in two categories, wherein both the practitioners and analysts start treating
(Snow & Benford, 1986,p464) More specifically, how social movement organizations mobilize and recruit members. There are four steps of frame alignments: frame bridging, frame amplification, and frame extension and frame transformation. Three tasks framing theory regarded as most important ones are diagnostic framing, prognostic framing and motivational framing. Based on three tasks, author will try to interpret movement via framing analysis. Diagnostic framing aimed to recognize the major problems and present the reason behind the problem.
The problem of fidelity stands important in this regard. The idea of "fidelity" to the prior text is often driven by the directly comparative method of study. Hutcheon argues that there are many and varied motives behind adaptation and few involve faithfulness (13). According to Thomas Leitch in The Oxford Handbook of Adaptation Studies (2017), one of the starting points of a way forward (as a follow-up to Hutcheon’s formulations) is to consider adaptation as an autonomous act and not to focus only on source texts. Hutcheon‘s theoretical perspective is both “formal” and “experiential” which helps to dig out different aspects from both mediums.
Another distinction which has had a strong impact on the study of culture is the understanding of culture as practice or culture as a system of symbols and meanings. As Hall stresses, culture is about meaning and as such “permeates all of society.” Representations, practices, values and identities have cultural meanings that are discursively constructed and tap into previous cultural discourses to be meaningful. Critical intercultural communication casts light on ways in which meanings echo cultural knowledge and are therefore difficult to identify and question – even for researchers themselves, hence a strong emphasis placed on reflexivity. The importance of “cultural resonance” has also been pointed out by scholars examining media