The Vietnam War and Iraq War were profoundly different, both in the manner in which they were executed and their outcomes, yet each war can attribute its escalation to a historical analogy among other factors. Historical analogies are utilized in making foreign policy decisions because of the psychological concept of heuristics. Simply put, a heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows people, and in this case political leaders, to solve problems and make quick and efficient judgments. Yuen Foong Khong offers that historical analogies are endearing for policy makers because they help in explaining new situations in terms that one can understand and are capable of predicating what is likely to occur (Khong). In both the Vietnam and Iraq Wars,
For example, in my paper, I was able to talk about principalities and territory, ways to acquire power and security. Machiavelli had discussed things that are relevant, existing and we need to consider for today. Although his book is often seen as ruthless and immoral, his arguments actually have sense and are supported by good examples and theories. Moreover, his views about politics and power is unique and different from others making the book both interesting and amusing at the same time to read since you will be able to discover and encounter new
Can evil be seen and can it be taught and developed over time. The greatest question asked is, whether evil is a genuine subject in history. The media helps the people describe what is and what is not bad for the community. As said by The Conversation, media has beneficial
It is a philosophy of discourse, every bit as capable of altering a culture as was the printing press.” (p. 452) This helps the audience to see that just as described in A Brave New World American’s are allowing their everyday lives to become amusements that have no substance in reality. By using this and other examples, Postman helps the audience to see the logic of his argument because they are to see the truth for themselves based on their own experience and
However, I also follow many journalists or people whom I look up to in my career field. Additionally, when they speak about different subjects that are inherently necessary thus gives me an outlook on ways I can enhance my skills while accommodating the traits they possess that makes them outstanding in their field. Another vital aspect of having in journalism is to uphold journalism ethics journalist are faced many challenges when they come across people who sometimes make inflammatory remarks thus allowing a reporter to respond in a way that does not go along with the ethics of journalism. Solely the reason why I practice being a great listener and learning to accept opinions of others that do not correlate with mine necessarily perpetuates a way for me to respond appropriately and respectively. Furthermore, doing more research on my future career field, I discovered that journalist deal with an overwhelming amount of stress and receiving my assessment results I know that stress control is something that I need to work on within myself to lead
Metaphors are used as strategic tools of persuasion, which influences the uncritical readers understanding of reality. CDA as an analytical tool has a very broad spectre, though the tools used for this study are adapted from Fowlers book Language in the News (1991). Fowler (1991) recommends using appropriate linguistic tools to analyse, and referring to relevant historical and social context, can bring ideology, normally hidden through habitualisation of discourse, to the surface for analysis (p. 89). As mentioned CDA is a broad spectre of tools that can be used to analyse though the essential ones for this paper are brought forward
Having a better knowledge of how history is created by the realities seen by the historians. Trouillot helps us grasp the idea that it is important to know that the most honest historians will try to tell the story as accurately as possible from the data. At the same time, many parts of the past get “silenced”, being forgotten about, pushed aside or passed over. Trouillot gives beneficial information that can be applied to our own studies about how this selective “silencing”
2.2.3 Types of Frames News frames are defined as “conceptual tools which media and individuals rely on to convey, interpret and evaluate information” (Neuman et al., 1992, p. 60). Journalists may not automatically make use of frames to deliberately distort the facts of a story. However, what may appear to be small changes in the way a story is framed may greatly impact how readers understand the text. “The framing of the presentation of events and news in the mass media can thus systematically affect how recipients of the news come to understand these events” (Price, Tewksbury, & Powers, 1995, p.4). De Vreese (2005) identifies two types of news frame; issue-specific frames and generic frames.
Jennifer, Great response, I only wish more individual thought as you when it comes to how we can be manipulated by the media if we fail to use proper critical thinking. As you mentioned, this year’s presidential is a prime example of media talking advantage or societies failure to incorporate effective critical thinking to determine for ourselves what is true/false, real or fake. This week’s reading has helped to in better understanding critical thinking, and techniques that can assist in making me a more effective critical thinker.
In the Journal of Political Economy the article “ Media Bias and Reputation” the author tackles the issue of bias representation of the news that effects peoples perception (Gentzkow & Shapiro, 2006). The authors give real life cases of media biases from newspapers such as the New York Times, Al Jazeera and other major news outlets. They also focus on how media biases affect credibility, quality and the reputation of news pieces. Gentzkow and Shapiro give insight on how to understand media biases, which gives the reader an advantage in reading and understanding news more effectively without falling in to the trap of preconceptualizing issues. They give the example of Al Jazeera efforts in creating a bias that is anti American in the efforts of discrediting the American media and their government.
The Image Culture by Christine Rosen is a very interesting article that engages the mind by making the readers think of their own everyday interactions with images. Rosen’s article defines the way that society has made images more important than the written word. Rosen also discusses that even though images of all kinds may be manipulated or falsified, but are still preferred to the written word. The concept that images have taken precedence in our society brings focus to how Rosen’s assertions within her article are enlightening, and thought provoking. The points that Rosen makes in The Image Culture sheds light on how people’s perceptions of images have changed so dramatically over the last few centuries and especially the last decade.
Sometimes the media will go so far as to analyze candidates’ personalities and end up shaping much of their public persona, in order to engage the viewers. News media also values conflict, which viewers find interesting, as well as skepticism, which leads to a certain level of analysis and interpretation of the candidates.
Halper continues to explain that these columnists would write about the domino theory and that one after another countries were going to fall under communism (94). However, a nay-sayer might argue that this is exactly the problem that Halper is trying to express. They could argue that he is referencing these “experts” that are committing this fallacy themselves. But never the less, showing that he has properly found other professional references and opinions on the matter helps justify Halper in his argument tremendously. It helps create a seemingly unbiased argument that many readers would find stable and
Although it is a challenging way to be informed in media it is the rawest form of truth in journalism. Yes, bias in media takes a big impact in the world today, however bias in viewers are just effective as well. The importance of truth in media is to have a real sense of what is going on and not believing just one side of politics. To paraphrase the video “Stossel in the Classroom: Dealing With Media Bias,” Bernie Goldburg states, “ It’s groupthink,..liberals will believe that a media filtered through a liberal prism will be the truth oppose to media based from a conservative outlook...get your news from more than one news source not just one to expand on the truth.” Goldburg is saying that many people will stick to what they feel comfortable with, but to really understand the story from all angles and be able choose the best outcome from the viewer 's own thoughts, the audiences must get the news from a variety of sources. Goldburg expanses on the sense that one news station will not provide the whole truth due to the bias in media.