Gersten Carnine And White Summary

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Gersten, Carnine, & White (1976)

In this article Gersten, Carnine, & White discuss how Direct Instruction and Applied Behavior Analysis complement each other. The reason why these two work so well together is because both forms of instruction require clarity. The article describes what all goes into Direct Instruction and henceforth what can result from Direct Instruction. For Direct Instruction to be successful, the instructions and delivery need to be clear. The teacher starts off my explaining one specific rule and then gives the students clear instruction about that specific rule and demonstrates to read a word in which that specific rule applies for the Direct Instruction Sequence. The students are then asked to read a list of words with the same rule with clear instructions. The students are then exposed to another list of words with the same rule and asked to read the list with fewer instructions. The teacher then moves on teaching the students to distinguish between the rule just taught, and a similar one and the students are asked to read a list of words with a mix of the rule just taught and a similar one independently. If a student makes a mistake,
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Teaching strategies, the first component includes: multiple teaching strategies including academically-oriented feed-back, proper correction of student errors, fast-paced exposure of tasks, and providing opportunities to participate. Teacher training is the next component. It was discovered that the best way to teach the teachers is the exact way the program is designed to teach its students. Students are continuously tested to monitor progress and check which students are ready to move on to the next activity. Equally important is the amount of academically engaged time. Academic instruction is now starting a year earlier, a 4-year oral language program was implemented, and an excellent reading program is used all to improve exposure
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