Essay On Alocasia Macrorrhiza

2072 Words9 Pages
Bacani, Jenny S.
4ChEB
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2. Review of Related Literature This chapter focuses on the background of the Giant Taro, and the biofuel production process.
2.1 Alocasia Macrorrhiza 2.1.1 Background
Alocasia Macrorrhiza, a member of the Araceae family, is a tall herbaceous plant that exceeds up to 4.5m and has a large elongated stem. Its arrow-shaped leaves are 0.9m long and are pointing skywards (Palaiswami & Peter, 2008). According to Floridata website (n.d.), it is mostly seen in tropical areas, specifically in forests, where it grows in the forest understory in openings and along streams. Giant taro can be cultivated in mostly full-shaded areas that have humus-rich, moist, but well-drained soil. It likes
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However, due to the rising demand of biofuels, more food crops are being abstracted away from the global food manufacturing industry, which has consequently resulted in soaring food prices across the globe. Also, competition between food and fuel continues to increase. With this, the importance of the selection of first-generation raw material for the biofuel production takes over.
Due to the limitations of first-generation biofuels, second-generation ones are introduced. Second-generation biofuels are from utilized non-food crops or agricultural waste specifically lignocellulosic materials. These include wood chips and willows. As mentioned by The Institute of Grocery Distribution (2008), second-generation biofuels require less farmland for the harvest of feedstocks making them more efficient to
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Restrictions in blending the biofuel with gasoline is the first fuel property. Research completed by Ramey (as cited in Szulczyk, 2010) found that while flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) can utilize gasoline-ethanol blends up to 85% ethanol, butanol and gasoline can be blended up to high ratios and with no restrictions. Having a longer chain hydrocarbon, butanol is strongly similar to gasoline (Szulczyk, 2010; Wang, Janssen & Blaschek, 2014). Oxygenates, the second fuel property, are essential for fuel to contain as additive. According to Farkade & Pathre (2012), the presence of oxygen gives you more desirable combustion resulting into low emission of CO, HC and higher emission of CO2 as a result of complete combustion. With this, while butanol contains 22% oxygen, ethanol has higher percentage with 36% oxygen. Octane number as the third property indicates the capacity of the fuel to ignite. The higher the rating, ignition is unlikely to occur. Pure ethanol has an octane number of 112.5 to 114 which is more or less 77% than the pure butanol’s. The fourth fuel property is the Reid vapor pressure. Butanol has a lower Reid vapor pressure than ethanol which makes it difficult to be vaporized. However, it is still an advantage for the butanol since it does not easily vaporize in the hot weather or area. Another fuel property that is observed is the energy content. Butanol contains 30% more

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