First generation biofuel is made from food crops or feed stocks that can also be consumed as human food by extracting the oils through fermentation. Crops like wheat, sugarcane, corn, sugar beet and sorghum are some of the main sources of producing biofuel. Since their availability and extraction through conventional means they are termed as conventional biofuels. Most common first generation biofuel includes:- (1) Biodiesel. Extracted from vegetable oils, animal fats, seeds from plants like Soybeans, Canola, and Sunflower are few of the examples.
And then, it didn't surprise at all as the world production of biofuel in 2007 was roughly 68 million liters and the numbers continues to ascend until the yield of biofuel reached to 105 billion liters in 2010. In the same year, a biofuel successfully provided 2.7% of the world’s fuels for road transport and the next year, a mandate was passed on to the more than 31 countries to blending biofuels at the national level and the same mandates were given to the more 29 states or provinces. The International Energy Agency aims to see more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels with biofuel by 2050 to reduce dependence on oil and coal. (1) 2.2.1
Argument Essay Research Claim: Alternative fuels are necessary, but we are still trying to come up with alternative fuels that don’t create greenhouse gas when produced or used, is reliable and better than gas or oil, and is cheap to use. Reason 1: Pollution/global warming According to the article Ethanol Increases Pollution, “Hyped as an environmentally friendly fuel, ethanol actually increases pollution, argues Sasha Lilley in the following viewpoint. Although ethanol-based fuel is cleaner, ethanol processing plants, which are powered by coal, emit greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming” (Sasha Lilley). Ethanol itself is environmentally friendly but the ethanol plants that makes ethanol also makes greenhouse gas, which can increase global warming which is why we need to switch to better fuels or find a better way to create ethanol. To successfully have hydrogen as a fuel source, it needs to have no greenhouse gas produced while it is being produced or used.
Oxygenated fuel also help to cut down renewable fossil fuel consumption. . Requirements of good oxygenated properties- -Oxygenates that are to be blended with diesel fuel must have fuel properties appropriate for engine fuel. -Oxygenate must be miscible with various diesel fuels over the range of environmental temperature seen
Cetane Number The cetane number of a diesel fuel is the numerical result of engine test designed to evaluate fuel ignition delay. It is defined as the whole number nearest to the value determined by calculation from percentage by volume of normal cetane (cetane No. = 100) in a blend with heptamethylnonane (cetane No. = 15) which matches the ignition quality of the test fuel when compared by this method. High cetane number fuels generally cause lower combustion noise, improved control of combustion, resulting in increased engine efficiency and power output.
It seems that solvents play a pivotal role in the liquid phase catalytic reaction. The conversion of benzyl alcohol is 5% under solvent-free conditions (Table 1, entry 1). The conversion percentage of benzyl alcohol are different in nonpolar to polar solvents. As demonstrated by Table 1, the conversion of benzyl alcohol is 40%, 62%, 93% and 10% when n-hexane, toluene, acetonitrile and H2O are used as solvent, respectively (Table 1, entries 2-5). This indicates that aprotic acetonitrile with large dielectric constant promote the collisions and dispersion of oxygen source, the alcohol and the catalyst .
It could be also obtained from the service-by-products and wastes. The sustainable of the availability of bio-fuel energy depends on the amount of energy that are derived from the growth of biomass that are being used for the production of food, clothes and also wood product. This biofuel could be in three different condition whether in solid, liquid or in gas
The reason: gasoline. In the fight against the gas emissions from these gasoline-powered vehicles, scientists, researchers, governments, and organizations alike have been searching and funding for safer, healthier, and cleaner alternatives to fossil fuels. One of these alternatives, ethanol, has grown to become one of the best choices to fighting air pollution today. “In 2014,” the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) states, “the use of ethanol in gasoline reduced CO2-equivalent gas emissions from transportation by 39.6 million metric tons. That’s equivalent to removing 8.4 million cars from the road for an
High and middle class household are less vulnerable than undernourished households. Overall, this biofuel programs help to expand agricultural and rural development and also that contribute to reduction of the greenhouse gas emission. Besides, this will eventually contribute to the development of biofuel production, which will harmonize the environment and food availability (Koizumi, 2013). However, the development of both agriculture and rural area can bring negative impact to their own country food security and also can affect the environment in negative way (Koizumi, 2013). AGING PEOPLE AND FOOD SECURITY IN
Aerosol Sci Technol.2005; 39(12):1129–1135.10.1080/02786820500430357 Farfaletti and colleagues8 assessed how doping diesel fuel with a mixture of organometallic compounds based mainly on Ce (used as a combustion improvement catalyst) affected heavy-duty and light-duty engine emissions of PM, CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (B[a]P-TEQ). B[a]P-TEQ, is used to express toxicity of a mix of PAHs through equivalent toxicity of only one compound: benzo[a]pyrene.9 8. Farfaletti A, Astorga C, Martini G, Manfredi U, Mueller A, Rey M, De Santi G, Krasenbrink A, Larsen BR. Effect of water/ fuel emulsions and a cerium-based combustion improver additive on HD and LD diesel exhaust emissions. Environ Sci Technol.