Transport of vitamin B12 to the tissues is brought about by TC. Thus, the metabolically active fraction of vitamin B12 is the vitamin B12 that is associated with TC, holotranscobalamin (holoTC). The much larger fraction of vitamin B12 carried by haptocorrin (HC) is considered metabolically inert because no cellular receptors exist, except on the liver. Active B12 contains the biologically available cobalamin because only transcobalamin-bound B12 promotes the uptake of the cobalamin by all cells via specific receptors. The shorter half-life for active- B12 compared to holoHC makes the decrease of active B12 one of the earliest markers of Vitamin B12
FAO reported that 2008 was the second largest crop in history. That same year, according to Action International, five million children died of hunger. It has been shown that the planet can produce food for a population more significant than the current one. However, 1.02 billion people suffer from famine (1 in 6.5), and 100 million more joined last years. The poor are not responsible for hungry lives, without water and electricity.
Polyphage therapy is the most common application for the phage cocktail, which is treatment involving the simultaneous use of more than one phage type. In vitro phage activity is not always predictive of in vivo therapeutic efficacy, efforts towards commercial development of phages as either therapeutic or more generally, bio control agents of bacteria , it is typically either broad host range monophages that are employed, an antilisteria food additive or phage cocktails. Researches about phage cocktails have increased recentlybecause of the start of the millennium owing to a number of insufficient to modest outcomes obtained while evaluating single phage preparations. This is not to imply that monophage therapy successes have not been seen, but rather that a number of strategies exist by which phage therapy outcomes may be improved. The use of phage cocktails can be summarized in combining of two or more phage types to produce more pharmacologically diverse formulations.
Approximately 7.0% of the world’s population is thalassaemia carrier and an estimated 300,000 babies are born each year with this disorder. More than 80% of these births occur in low or middle-income countries. These countries have limited resources where priority tends to be given to combat high rates of infant and child mortality from infectious diseases and malnutrition (Weatherall, 2001). As a result, thalassaemia receive little
Pylori infection is on a steep decline in most of the western countries mainly due to the success of combination therapies and improve personal hygiene and community sanitation to prevent re-infection.The situation is not improving in many of the developing countries due to failure of treatment regimes and emergence of durg resistance. The infection in some cases leads to chronic superficial gastritis, chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma.Humans are the only important reservoir of H.Pylori.  Children may acquire the organism from their parents (more often from the mother) or from other children. H.pylori is easily cultured from vomitus and gastroesophageal refluxate and is less easily cultured from stool. One of the most distinctive features of H.pylori is the genetic diversity between clinical isolates obtained from different patient populations.
The bacteria associated with penicillin, has originated from rare and naturally resistant varieties that had prevented the killing of the bacteria and as a result, making the drug ineffective. The resistance towards penicillin was due to the high number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria present which had a greater chance of survival over the bacteria that was not resistant, therefore being preserved and eventually causing a mutation in the bacteria not already resistant to penicillin (De
Because in ethnography, you have small sample size, enormous amounts of time and money to collect the data, it is not always feasible in a healthcare setting. Although, ethnography is not always the best method, it is a useful qualitative approach for particular types of research. Ethnography is a way to learn patient’s views regarding their experience in the illness or delivery of service of the
When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive Non – Mendelian inheritance is a general term that refers to any pattern of inheritance that does not segregate in accordance to Mendel’s Law. In Mendelian inheritance, each parent contributes one of two possible alleles needed for a trait. There are many example of non – Mendelian inheritance pattern, including incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and sex – linked traits. Multiple alleles are a type of non-Mendelian inheritance pattern that involves more than just the two alleles. Multiple alleles happen when there are more than two alleles that are possible to code for any one characteristic.
Although these other two terms continue to be used, they are misleading because secretion of many lymphokines and monokines is not limited to lymphocytes and monocytes as these terms imply, but extends to a broad spectrum of cells and types. For this reason, the more inclusive term cytokine is preferred. Many cytokines are referred to as interleukins, a name indicating that they are secreted by some leukocytes and act upon other leukocytes. Interleukins 1–25 have been identified. There is reason to suppose that still other cytokines will be discovered and that the interleukin group will expand further.
Determinants of Pneumonia in children Indonesia study case Introduction Pneumonia commonly is caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae ,Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and some strains of respiratory virus like influenza, parainfluenza, and adenovirus (NCID, 2005). This disease in children is characterized by cough with difficult or rapid breathing and chest indrawing. (Wardlaw et al, 2006) Pneumonia contributes greatly for children death below 5 year in the world. Figure 1 describes that more than 10 million children in the world die before they reach their fifth birthday. Approximately 2.6 millions children younger than 5 years die annually from Pneumonia, most of them in the low income country.