The math section is designed to be a test of mathematical reasoning, and, it contains a large number of items that require students to apply their knowledge of mathematics in somewhat unusual ways. The gender differences favoring male students on the SAT are consistent with other findings on measures containing items with ill-defined solutions or unfamiliar types of items (Gallagher and De Lisi, 1994). Gallagher & De Lisi (1994) wanted to determine whether, male and female high school students achieved differently on the item performance on math section of the SAT. Results showed that male students were more likely to outperform female students on problems that no solution was found. Differences between male and female students on problems that had the use of familiar solution strategies tended to favor female students.
The potential challenges researchers face is that writing skills gets far less instructional attention than different subjects, particularly in the lower and middle school grades, where more of the focus is on increasing higher test scores in reading and mathematics (Baker, Chard, Ketterlin-Geller, Apichatabutra, and Doabler, 2009; Schumaker and Deshler, 2009). Researchers have seen several changes based on experimental research on students with LD written expression and determined that there is enough evidence to support the effectiveness of self-directed techniques when used with
To measure teacher feedback, the researchers asked the 454 participating students to fill out a survey that asked the students to rate their teachers, in general, on a five-point scale which included questions such as whether the teachers provide positive reinforcements for completed homework or allowed students to go over their homework in class. While this feedback was not as well defined as the Mitrovic et al. (2013) study, the perceived feedback in the Núñez et al. (2015) study was generally positive or negative. The higher the students scored the teachers, the more positive it was interpreted.
It is also suggested boys are less motivated to learn and have difficulties focusing and paying attention in school, some even may become overly optimistic about their academic ability which results in lack of effort (Long et al 2011). However not all boys are underachievers, research suggests boys outperform girls in Maths at Key Stage 2, and continue to outnumber girls at higher level maths. However research argues there is a large gender gap favouring girls in English DfES (2007). Nevertheless, not all girls are achievers, some girls may not be conforming to the hard-working, careful and motivated stereotypes they familiarise themselves with. Although there is a large
This part starts by outlining the results of the related researches conducted on this matter. Regarding the issue of brain dominancy and students achievements, Jarsonbeck (1984) conducted a study to examine the effects of right-brain mathematics instruction on low achieving students. The results showed that more right-brain dominance students were in the lower achieving group, whereas more left-brain dominance students were in the higher achieving group. In addition, it showed that students in the control group, left-brain instruction, achieved higher scores if they were left-brain preference, whereas students in the experimental group, right-brain instruction, achieved higher scores if they were right-brain preference. The study indicated the importance of matching teaching strategies to student hemispheric
However, there are some analysts who criticize STAR and its proponents. One of them is Eric Hanushek of Stanford University’s Hoover institute. Hanushek admits that pupils can obtain primary benefits from small classrooms. But, he argues that the STAR project outcomes cannot guarantee that the students’ academic success will continue when they return to the normal-sized classes. On the other hand, Nye et.al (2001) writes “our analysis of the data collected by the Lasting Benefits Study demonstrate that the positive effects of small classes in early grades resulted in mathematics achievement gains that persisted at least through Grade 9.” (p.255).
Cooperative learning is small group learning that allows students to work together to accomplish shared goals. Students seek outcomes that are beneficial to all. Students discuss the content and concept with each other, help each other understand it, and encourage each other to work hard (Johnson & Johnson, 1999, p. 68). Karl A. Shininger (2006, p. 37) embarked on a study to determine the benefits of using STAD in a middle school mathematics classroom. He found that Students Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) increases academic achievement and improves students' self-esteem as learners and their social interactions with their peers.
Madhumathi and Ghosh (2012) examined Indian ESL learners’ awareness of reading strategies and their reading comprehension. They found that learners preferred problem solving strategies when reading academic texts over supporting and global strategies. They also reached that there was a relationship between reading strategies awareness and reading comprehension achievement. Moreover, Meniado (2016) found in his study of 60 Saudi male EFL students that the problem solving strategy was the most frequently used of reading strategies. However, there was no correlation between the learners’ awareness of reading strategies and their reading comprehension performance.
They did not have it. So that makes children in Indonesia think that science is complicated and useless to be studied. Indonesia needs to change the system of learning because an attractive science learning by using fun learning and field course can develop science in Indonesia especially for children. Science in Indonesia is not that hard, it also not easy, but it can be learned. Indonesia’s education system is analyzed by the “PISA” tests, it is comparing the 15 year-olds children in 65 countries, about the ability of reading, math, and science.
Benefits of using PBL There are many benefits of using PBL reported by researchers. The most important ones mentioned in major studies regarding PBL are an improved academic achievement, increased engagement, greater understanding of the content, collaboration, skill development, work with diverse learners and outreach. 1.1.1. Improved academic achievement It is crucial for students to have a deep understanding of the topic. Several research studies report that PBL fosters students’ better understanding of the subject content through the practice (Intro, Bell, 2010, Baumgartner & Zabin, Bas, 2011, Larmer & Mergendoller, Van den Berg, Krajcik).