Mesopotamia and Egypt were early river valley civilizations. Archaeologists have discovered an incredible amount of information about them, and in that research many similarities and differences about the civilization’s religions stood out. Both Mesopotamian and Egyptian religions were polytheistic and believed in an afterlife, however Mesopotamians viewed gods as human-like and had grim views of life after death, while Egyptians viewed gods as a cross between humans and animals and had brighter views concerning their afterlife. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were polytheistic civilizations. Mesopotamians believed in gods such as Utu, the sun god, and Ereshkigal, the god of the afterlife (Mesopotamia ppt).
The Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest story known to mankind, being written on Sumerian clay almost five thousand years ago (Garone). Since the story was originally known orally, the culture and themes from The Epic of Gilgamesh must have existed long before it was finally inscribed (Mark 4). Having known this, the cultures and themes can be compared to today’s society, discovering about how they have shifted and evolved, and also observe how they are similar. The ancient days of Gilgamesh has brought culture that has greatly influenced today’s society. Because Gilgamesh was set around the time of late Babylonian or early Sumerian society, the Babylonian and Sumerian cultures also play a role in shaping the world into what is is today (Mark).
Intellectual seeking’s were valued greatly across Mesopotamia. The schools were said to be “as numerous as temples and taught reading, writing, religion, law, medicine, and astrology.” Over 1000 divinities in the pantheon of the gods in the Mesopotamian cultures with many stories concerning the gods. It’s generally credited to the Mesopotamian lore that biblical tales like “the Fall of Man” and “the Flood of Noah,” since they are appeared in Mesopotamian works like “The Myth of Adapa” and “The Epic of Gilgamesh.” Mesopotamians believed they’re coworkers with gods and that their land is infused with spirits and demons. Mesopotamians believed that the beginning of the world was “a victory by the gods over the forces of
The Greeks followed a polytheist religion in which multiple gods represented various aspects of the nature as well as skills practiced by mankind. From myths we can see that the Greeks worshipped the gods in the myths as they believed that humans were created by gods and the gods still walked amongst them so this would significantly alter mankind’s
Gilgamesh, from the tale of Gilgamesh, was the king of Uruk, on the river Euphrates in modern Iraq. When the story is first intorduced, the reader can see that Gilgamesh was a very confident man and contained very little compassion for his people of Uruk. He was a king sure enough, but he was not one to count on as a leadear or a protector. He was the one to kill his people loved ones and rapes their daughters. He knew in his mind that he was superior to others due to the fact that he was two-thirds god and one third human.
The Epic of Gilgamesh had the Gods who are Anu, Enlil, Ninurta, Ennugi, and Ea (line 2-3, p.20). In contrast to The Epic of Gilgamesh, Genesis had the only God according to the whole story. As the omniscient God existed over the world, the God in Genesis naturally controls every field of the world without distributing roles. On the other hand, a number of the Gods in The Epic of Gilgamesh can split the roles into parts. For example, Anu is the lord of the firmament, warrior Enlil is the counselor of the city Shurrupak, Ninurta is the helper, Ennugi is the watcher over canals, and Ea is the God of wisdom (line 2-3, p.20).
Therefore, it is evident that the old concept of Gods, Goddesses, Deities and Demigods have not only been re-popularised, but they also remain true to their lineage of more than a thousand years prior. The ideologies and the popular beliefs pertaining to particular characters - both mortal and immortal - from both the texts are very much similar, not only regarding the more popular Gods and Goddesses, but also in terms of the mythical creatures and mythical structures as shown above. Ergo, with the eroding of time the dogmas of the common people have remained
The story of gilgamesh is believed to be an epic poem from ancient mesopotamia, dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur (circa 2100 BC), it is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. This tale is about the king in Uruk, named Gilgamesh who is ⅔ God ⅓ Human. Gilgamesh comes across as an arrogant, reckless king that makes his citizens feel threatened. The sky god, Anu orders the goddess Aruru to create the First Man, Enkidu, as a competitor to Gilgamesh, in an attempt to give him a friend, which will bring peace to his soul. At one point Enkidu is sentenced to death by the gods, which leaves Gilgamesh alone with his own destiny.
Geography played a big role in both Mesopotamian and Ancient Egyptian civilization. When it came to agriculture, Mesopotamia in the beginning of civilization was rich in cereal and grains but lacked stone and materials, while Egypt was rich with sandstone, limestone, and granite; perfect elements for the creation of materials, and cultivating mostly emmer and barley (Faltas, 2018). Egyptians and Mesopotamian constructions were also very different; Egyptians constructed tomb and pyramids with beautiful stones while Mesopotamia constructed ziggurats and monuments with sunbaked
Though the years may have passed or the civilizations may have eroded, it is these characters and their extraordinary characteristics that have endured till today. Not only have they persisted, they have been re-popularized in recent years through the 21st Century media. One of the best examples of this can be given through the popular mythological and adventure fiction series by Rick Riordan called Percy Jackson and the Olympians which, through its modern writing, depicts the story of the life of a young Demigod. Though the tale is aimed at a young demographic, throughout the plot and storyline of the series, however, there is an intricate inlay of Greek and Roman myths which, while entertaining to most readers, a scholar of Literature would find most refreshing. These references to the Greek Gods in the modern pentology can also find its roots in Ovid’s Metamorphosis in which we find their Roman counterparts.