Thomas Haskell debates Novick’s belief in objectivity and skepticism in his book Objectivity is not Neutrality. Haskell claims that objectivity is about listening to people and being fair towards their views because you can always learn new things. Skepticism, in regards to Haskell’s view is in order to be objective you have to be continuously in doubt; you have to be able to question past knowledge and learnings. Haskell bases these views on the belief of truth; you must be able to doubt yourself in order to find the truth. Historical truth in Haskell’s opinion cannot just be perspective because then no one will believe each other.
Unhappiness, Life’s Poison Sue Townsend, an English writer and humorist, once said, “My dark secrets are life threatening. Pockets of unhappiness set in aspic that build and build. I have this primitive feeling that if something good happens, it is going to be followed by something bad. There is always a price to pay.”
Holden is irresponsible and careless when it comes to handling his life. The reason is because throughout "Catcher in the rye" Holden has had a nippy attitude with every situation he has been in. We as readers see this when Holden speaks to Sally Hayes on the telephone. " For a second, I was tempted to tell her to forget about the matinee. But we chewed the fat for a while"(106).
According to one theory, overprecision springs from the desire to relieve internal dissonance, or a state of tension regarding the right decision or course of action. People in a stressful state of tension feel motivated to relieve this dissonance, even if this requires them to change what they believe. There are psychological and social forces that push us toward unwarranted self-assurance. But can we be blamed for wanting to believe that we know what is true and false? If we find out that we were mistaken about something, we move in that instant from the old belief to a new belief.
One must be able to balance their optimism and cynicism is the perfect way to counteract one overshadowing the other. In healthy doses and in appropriate matters, it allows people to think and be practical. It is better to be safe and doubt than to blindly trust and become unbearably naïve. Cynicism is not the total absence of hope or faith, but rather a perspective on how exactly that hope may be obtained or evaluating why you put your faith in certain people. Ultimately, the cynic is a mix of realism and skepticism.
I call it “blind cheating” its simply means when a person cheats and doesn 't realize nor foresee the consequences of his actions. While cheating is a sure way to satisfaction in the moment..when you don 't get caught that is. That is what you call short term cheating, the only real satisfaction you get from cheating. While long term satisfaction is achievable through cheating in some situations for the most part it gives the exact opposite feeling such as regret, helplessness, and a sense of stupidity. You will often find that cheaters experience these feelings in serious testing situations like the SAT or ACT were cheating is strictly prohibited.
Heuristics can be helpful but they do not assure a correct solution to a problem so should not be relied on. There are three heuristics, representativeness, availability and anchoring described by Tversky and Kahneman (1974). The representativeness heuristic is a short cut in which the chance of something happening is based on how representative it seems. An example of this is the gamblers fallacy, if someone were to apply representative thinking to random events such as roulette wheels, they would expect short sequence outcomes to be the same as long sequence outcomes, using this type of thinking when gambling means the person is treating the random event as if it has a memory, this makes it clear to see the gamblers fallacy is illogical (Hardman, 2015, p.62). The next type of heuristic is the availability heuristic which is
Generally confidence can be defined as the state of feeling certain about the truth of something, while if it is defined in the ToK context knowing what you're good at, the value you provide, and acting in a way that conveys that to others confidence is the belief people has from a choice or proposition that are based on evidence that is correct, it is a form of certainty. However, a certainty doesn’t mean an increase in confidence. While doubt is the state of mind which lies between belief and disbelief that involves uncertainty. When people have doubt, they will question every knowledge that they have and just had. It arises a questioning and creates a revaluation regarding the knowledge that could result in a new knowledge and furthering the knowledge that was simple into a complex mind.
conceptualised as an important factor in influencing credibility. Results are discussed in terms of possible heuristics involved in judgements of an asylum-seeker population, as well as implications for vulnerable asylum seekers whose symptoms do not conform to stereotypes` . Talking about new recruits Juany states that they are not taught about refugee’s rights and options but techniques to identify the lies in asylum seekers narratives. He further says `that if you find inconsistencies you are less likely to believe and so to give them entry. Some people think that exaggerating makes the story more credible and in fact it is the opposite, because then they mix lies with truths and create inconsistencies’