Girder Bridges: A Structural Analysis

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Secondary elements such as barriers, sidewalks, and diaphragms may increase the load carrying capacity of girder bridges. This in turn affects reliability. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential benefit of secondary elements on the system reliability of girder bridges, if these elements are designed with the structural system to participate resisting vehicular live loads. Simple span, two lane structures are considered, with composite steel girders supporting a reinforced concrete deck. For structural analysis, a finite element procedure is developed that combines a grillage model of the bridge deck with solid elements for edge-stiffening effects. Random variables considered are composite girder, barrier, and sidewalk flexural…show more content…
Concrete: cellular concrete of clay- gypsum and invention of light weight concrete
Ferro concrete: this concrete is made up of a layer of fine mesh wire saturated with cement.
Gunite: or commonly referred as a shot crete. This type or form of concrete is most commonly used in areas where formwork is limited or hard to use. Shoring up exposed vertical excavations, banks or surfaces susceptible to collapse. For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces.
Glass : tempered glass is the choice recommended in high rise buildings as opposed to plain glass as it can resist various live loads and would not shatter.
Some advantages and disadvantages of the type of materials used are: non corrosive, easy in casting (in situ) plasticity. Disadvantages can be, the cost to construct the dead weight, (weight associated with the structure) and the challenge or difficulty which may be encountered when pouring
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A pile foundation
2. Raft foundation
3. Combined raft and pile foundation
The most common foundation selected for this structure was the raft foundation. This foundation is commonly known for its load distributing capability. And given the enormous load of this building. It is an ideal pick as it distributes the load and simultaneously helps keep the building upright and sturdy.
The pile foundation was also employed, being as it is, the piles also build up the load bearing capacity of the ground making it sufficient to support the structure.
When these two types of foundations are combined, it is somewhat of a hybrid foundation and is very useful in marshy sandy soils, where the bearing capacity is very low.
Before we explore the structural systems used the construction of the international waterfront of Port of Spain, we must explore some hazards associated with the construction. The loads that may potentially affect the structure. The building can be viewed as a vertical cantilever beam, of which its base is firmly fixed to the ground. The Hyatt regency building has to carry vertical gravity loads and lateral earthquake and wind loads. What we refer to as gravity loads are what in fact, dead loads and live loads. The lateral loads tends to break or snap the building or overturn or topple it. with this information in mind. The building must therefore have an adequate bending and shear resistance and it must not at no instance lose its vertical load distributing

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