During the eighteenth century, intellectual changes began to dismantle traditional values and institutions in Europe. Liberal ideas arose from the French Revolution which became the root to the nationalist feeling among the Italians. In 1861, the Italian states, a previously small confederation of semi-autonomous states located on the Apenning Peninsula, were unified as the Kingdom of Italy. This process occured due to a series of events and the actions of various figures, but three men in particular made unification possible: Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi. Mazzini initiated the idea of an independent and unified Italian nation through his movement of Young Italy.
At the end of World War II, Western European powers sought political stability after a period of turmoil and devastation. Germany was divided into two spheres of influence: East Germany, controlled by the Soviet Union, and West Germany, controlled by the Allies. Western Europe attempted to unify in the post-war economy, and various views arose regarding this potential unity. The unification of Western Europe was met with opinions that were largely motivated by a nation’s own economic and political interests.
The precedents that Washington set were the greatest of all, but the best examples he mentioned were critical to America. Washington was the first president of the United States. He had served two terms, and warned future presidents not to run for a third term. He believed it would make citizens believe that the government is in power; but truly, the states and people are in control. Based on George Washington’s observations, he warned the people to stay united, stay neutral, and follow the constitution, in order to keep the U.S. stable.
He believed that only a strong leader like himself could defeat conflicts caused by other political parties (especially communists/socialists) and post-war problems (World War I). Mussolini’s first call to action was creating a group called the “Blackshirts” that would carry out beatings against communist leaders and throwing them out of office. People of all different backgrounds joined including teachers, business people, and store owners (Document 5). Mussolini constantly told his people that he was going to restore Italy back to its glorious Roman Empire era. He backed up his sayings by invading Ethiopia.
Liberal ideas were in favor of the majority in the country so it paved way for further unification as an independent state which emerged from all hierarchy. In order to defeat other powerful enemies, a strong state would have more advantages as it served as a collective defense. Nationalism accelerated the process of unification since it utilized the military force and political support from a large number of patriots and liberalists. Nationalism which was the emphasizing of the national identifying, and aspiration of independence promotes the unification of Italy and Germany because it focused on the majority’s voice in the country. James Stuart Mill, (Doc 2) who was a proponent of national identity, accentuated the necessity of a constitution
Nothing is more basic than the set of laws and rights that U.S. Constitution provides for us as Americans. But very few people know where the Founding Fathers actually got their inspiration. Contrary to popular belief, the U.S. constitution was heavily influenced by an old Indian Confederacy born in the mid-16th century. This confederation, however, is the mighty Iroquois Nation, who has been living by their own constitution, unified in peace, for over 800 years. The founding fathers were brilliant men, and yes, they were very intelligent, but they did not just pull words out of their rear ends and write it down on a piece of paper.
Addison Schwarz 3/22/2016 Per: 5 World History Chapter 13 Study Guide Vocab Flapper Flappers were rebellious young women in the United States and Europe during the 1920s who went outside of society’s norms and showed off more of their body than what was previously acceptable. Prohibition The ban on manufacturing and selling of alcoholic beverages in the United States from 1920 to 1933.
This let Italy become a completely unified country, the first time since the Holy Roman Empire. Nationalism also caused a hierarchy of cultures. Nationalism introduced the idea that one culture was better than all others, like in Russia. Russians believed they were better than all other cultures, and thought this justified the persecution of other people, like the Jews. Nationalism affected Europe greatly, because it caused rebellions and revolutions, it caused people of the same culture to unify, and it caused people to believe that their culture was superior to other cultures.
“[Italy’s] reason was straightforward: her alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary only provided for military support in the event of a defensive war: whereas Austria-Hungary’s stance with regard to Serbia was clearly offensive.” Italy have had tension with Austria-Hungary ever since there became
As a product of the Revolutions of 1848, European sentiment towards Nationalism grew extensively among the middle and lower classes. European ethnic groups and nations desired a self-determined state that represented their group and culture. As a result, both Germany and Italy would experience unification movements within several decades. By 1871, the Italian states would be unified under the Italian tricolour flag; and in the same year, the German states would become integrated into Germany under Wilhelm I of Prussia. Nationalism is both a political and social system in which the nation-state is of utmost importance -- in which nation-states act in their own self-interest and are of full sovereignty.
Giovanni Gentile, the father of Italian fascism, suggest that the totalitarian state looks to "total representation of the nation and total guidance of national goals" (Appelrouth and Edles, 2012). He indicates that while this control is most obvious and pronounced under a dictatorship, it is not entirely absent in democratic
The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars had spread the concept of democracy to most of the European continent and the idea that the people who share an ethnic origin, language and political ideals had the right to form independent states. However, the principle of national self-determination was totally ignored by dynastic and reactionary forces. Many of the people who wanted autonomy were subject to local dynasties or other nations. For example, the German states, integrated in the German Confederation, were divided into numerous duchies, principalities and kingdoms under the terms of the Congress of Vienna; Italy was also divided into several political units, some of which were under foreign control; the French Belgian of the Austrian
Nazi Germany is the common name for the German Reich from 1933 to 1945 with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in command. Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party rule from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as the totalitarian ruler. Under Hitler’s rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist dictatorial state that controlled all aspects of life. The fascists, in Italy, imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition. With this being said, there are other similarities and differences between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.
They wanted a constitutional government and wanted to end tyranny. Giuseppi Mazzini was one of the leaders. They are important because they influenced the Risorgimento movement. Piedmont: State in the northwest corner of Italy, originally being a part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which happened to be ruled by the only Italian native at the time.