Cancer is diagnosed each year in about 175,000 children ages 14 and under worldwide. Cancer is the leading cause of death by disease past infancy for U.S. children. However, thanks to better therapies, more than 80% of U.S. childhood cancer patients now become long-term survivors. Survival rates can vary depending on the type of cancer. About 420,000 childhood cancer survivors live in the U.S., with much more around the world (St. Jude Children 's Research Hospital) this shows that cancer is one major diagnosed disease found in children under the age of 15.
Introduction The term kyphosis describes the spinal curve that results in an abnormally rounded back. Kyphosis can happen at any age. 7459 papers were found when the word ‘kyphosis’ was searched on ‘PubMed’ search engine. The majority of these papers studied kyphosis were related with scoliosis. It was understood that kyphosis was studied in addition to the other deformities in the papers related to the etiology of kyphosis with some exceptional cases.
However, for an abnormality or a defect to be identified, it must either be compared with a pre-morbid endo sonographic image of the same patient or against a normal set of values. It is the latter that is commonly done. Childbirth has been consistently identified as a risk factor for ASC injuries , with a higher risk in primi gravida . Up to 67% - 92%  of mothers may have occult injuries detected on EAUS. Since all the participants of our study were Sri Lankan primi gravida, there may be concerns when directly extrapolating these values to Caucasians, males or non-pregnant females.
Vascular lesions constitute one of the most important but difficult diagnostic and therapeutic enigmas in the head and neck region. They are divided into two major subtypes according to the ISSVA classification system as Vascular Neoplasms and Vascular Malformations. We present a rare case of massive slow flow vascular malformation involving the tongue and oropharynx which was managed successfully by Interventional Radiology procedure. Case Report: A 22 year male presented with painless gradually increasing swelling involving the right lateral aspect of the tongue ( Fig 1). According to the patient it was present since childhood but became symptomatic since last 1 year due to rapid increase in size causing difficulty in swallowing.
INTRODUCTION Anxiety prior to surgery is common, indeed up to 80% of patients will experience it (1, 9). With anxiety disorders affecting approximately 15% of the UK population (2, 3, 9), preoperative situational anxiety may significantly exacerbate an existing anxiety disorder. While anxiety can be expected in the preoperative period, research demonstrates has been shown to have that it has negatives effects in the postoperative period, from increased postoperative pain to decreased wound healing, and long-term psychological distress (4-9). This raises the question of whether doctors are ethically obligated to tell their patients the truth and just how much information should a doctor disclose to their patient? Are there any situations when disclosure is ethically objectionable?
With Reference to the CYP IAPT Core Principles, critically discuss Evidence Based Practice and Routine Outcome Monitoring and the challenges of implementing these within the modality of parenting and within the wider context of practise within the children centres Introduction Studies published by Green, Meltzer, McGinnity, Goodman and Ford in 2004 estimated that 9.6% or nearly 850,000 children and young people aged between 5 -16 had a mental health disorder and it was estimated that a staggering 76% of those CYP with anxiety and depression disorders were not accessing mental health services compared to 35% of adults. As a result of such studies, The children and young people’s improving Access to Psychological Therapies programme (CYP IAPT) was conceived and aimed to transform the delivery of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CHAMS) across England. CYP IAPT has four core principles, Evidence Based Practice (EBP), Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM), Participation, and Reflective Practice. This essay will focus on the two principles of EBP and ROM and will consider the challenges of implementing these within the modality of parenting and within the wider context of practise within the children centres. Evidence Based Practise.
I am intrigued by your essay “The C Word in the Hallways.” Mental illness, especially in teens, is an important topic to discuss; even now, 15 years after your essay was published. This country has grieved more than its fair share of mass homicide-suicides that have been blamed on mental illness. My own high school has seen one suicide and two more attempted suicides just this year. I agree with your claim that we write mental illness off as unimportant, and what stood out to me most about your argument is how your word choice and the tone of your essay effectively demonstrates how adults dismiss mental illness in teens as a phase of bad behavior. You used examples of two seventeen year old boys: Kip Kinkel and Sam Manzie.
Closed head injuries are a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact. Closed head injuries are the main leading causes of death in children under 4 years old and the most common cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people. Closed head injuries and other forms of mild traumatic brain injury are about 75% of the estimated 1.7 million brain injuries that occur annually in the United States. Closed head injuries may result in physical, cognitive, or psychological impairment. Closed-head injuries are caused mostly by car accidents, falls, acts of violence, and sports injuries.
reported that all patients who were immobilized due to blunt trauma had higher correlation to mortality (23%), this was also associate with an increased amount of CPR on arrival to the emergency department. Of the sample, 94% of cases suffered gunshot wounds. Among these cases, those who underwent c-spine immobilization had a higher unadjusted risk of death. This study argued that the use of a cervical collar may have negative effects clinically, it may mask clinical signs, access to injury and may impair efforts to intubate the patient. However, it was noted in this study that patients with a suspected C-spine injury with penetrating trauma had no significant correlation with an increased risk of death.
Discussion This study adds information about the cumulative incidence and characteristics of urgent and elective readmissions of children in a general hospital and gives insight into the kind of readmissions, their patterns and potential preventability. In a cohort of 16,066 children the incidence of both urgent and elective readmissions was 5.9 %. Urgent readmissions made up for 4.9% of all admissions. Compared to reported overall readmission rates in other studies(6,7,8,12-14) of 6.5-13.3% our readmission rate was low, although the generalizability is limited, because these studies were conducted in other countries and primarily in children’s clinics with different patient populations. In general it is difficult to compare readmission
As of 2013, the number of people with MS was estimated to be over 2.3 million worldwide. ( atlas 2013) Most of the non-traumatic disabilities in young adults are caused by MS . It is considered that an interaction of genetic factors, environmental predisposition, and abnormal immune responses can be the chief causes of MS, But the exact etiology of MS is still in question . MS has been greatly studied within the recent years, but a great number of clinical challenges still remain in regard to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.  One of the most considered factors in MS patients is the alterations in biomarker profiles.
This translates to a rate of 2.25 children per 100,000 children in the general population and an average of nearly five children dying every day from abuse or neglect”. (www.childwarefare.gov) Human Rights Watch shares that “the real risks that children face are quite different: government statistics indicate that most sexual abuse of children are committed by family members or trusted authority figures, and by someone who has not previously been convicted of a sex offense.”(www.hrw.org) Consequently, when evaluating the evidence that is present it is safe to say, that despite all of the efforts that are put forth every day to protect our youth, some people still have the potential to prey on those whom cannot defend themselves. The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 has afforded the public with ammunition to fire back at those who prey on the vulnerable. Therefore, the foundation has been laid, for the public to build upon and grow with the knowledge that we are able to obtain to keep our children safe. Furthermore, we cannot solely rely on law enforcement, and others to keep our children safe we have to be proactive within the
This study had a small sample of 42 athletes and did not report the time since concussion in their findings. However, they did find significant attenuation of previously concussed players’ brain activity in multiple parts of the frontal lobe including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus (Virji-Babul et al., 2014). These findings indicate that EEG is able to measure frontal lobe abnormalities between concussed and non-concussed individuals, however, more research is needed involving the changes concussions have on the frontal
INTRODUCTION Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) represent a universal human condition, and are recognized as a worldwide phenomenon , sharing many similarities on patients ' demographics, semiology, and coexisting neurological and psychiatric disorders, despite cultural and economic differences (2). This condition continues to generate interest among epileptologists and psychiatrists. PNESs have an incidence of 1.4/100,000 people per year, and it is estimated that about 20% of the patients referred to tertiary care epilepsy centers for refractory seizures have this condition (3). Previous studies, using surveys, provided an understanding about how health-care providers (HCP) from distinct countries, such as USA, Chile, UK, Australia and Brazil address patients with PNES. (5,6,7,8).
People that suffer from head trauma like Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) have long term consequences but how does this affect their life and what are people suggesting to do about it? ALS and CTE are two forms of diseases to the brain that causes severe symptoms such as muscle weakness, memory loss, shortness of breath, and confusion. ALS is a rare disease with fewer than 20,000 cases per year found in the U.S. This type of disease affects nerve cells in the brain and in the spinal cord. CTE is some what similar to ALS but this other disease is commonly found in athletes with a history of repetitive brain trauma.