It is a strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. Hydrochloric acid is naturally found in the gastric juices of the stomach. The most important role of hydrochloric acid is to break down the foods and cause the release of enzymes that further
Introduction Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides consist of (α-1,4)-linked α-D-glucopyranose units produced by bacterial digestion of cellulose. These structurally related natural products contain a central cavity that was lined by the skeletal carbons and ethereal oxygens of the glucose residues, which gave it a lipophilic character to a certain extent while the outer surface is hydrophilic. The 3D-structure of CDs are shaped like a truncated cone rather than perfect cylinders due to the chair conformation of their glucopyranose units. The hydroxyl functional groups are orientated on the cone exterior with the primary hydroxyl groups of the sugar residues at the narrow edge of the cone, and the secondary hydroxyl groups at the wider edge. The polarity of the cavity has been estimated to be similar to that of an aqueous
At high concentrations, it can affect the nervous system by preventing cellular respiration, forming complex with iron in the mitochondrial cytochrome enzymes (Locey, 2005). After much research, it is now found to fit the criteria for gasotransmitters, (i) it exists as a gas, (ii) it is permeable to plasma membrane, (iii) it can be synthesised endogenously by enzymes, (iv) it has defined functions at physiological concentrations, and (v) it has specific molecular targets and its effects can be imitated with exogenous applications (Wang, 2002). There have been a lot of evidence documented regarding the therapeutic effects of H2S, mainly in cardiovascular diseases (Elsey, Fowkes & Baxter, 2010). 2.2 Therapeutic effects of H2S H2S is reported to be a vasorelaxant of blood vessels and its effects seems to involve K+ and Ca2+ channels, though uncertain (Hart, 2011). It has also been found that H2S can produce other hypotensive effects such as regulating plasma renin levels (Lu et al., 2010) and inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme activity in endothelial cells (Laggner et al., 2007).
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions enabling more products to be formed within a shorter span of time. Enzymes are fragile and easily disrupted by heat or other mild treatment. Studying the effect of temperature and substrate concentration on enzyme concentration allows better understanding of optimum conditions which enzymes can function. An example of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is enzymatic hydrolysis of an artificial substrate, o-Nitrophenylgalactoside (ONPG) used in place of lactose. Upon hydrolysis by B-galactosidase, a yellow colored compound o-Nitrophenol (ONP) is formed.
This experiment involved the chosen enzyme, B-Galactosidase, to be tested with a substrate called o-nitrophenol-B-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG). The purpose was to determine over time the effects the enzyme had on the substrate concentration, as well as to examine the effect of lactose, a disaccharide on the formation of o-nitrophenol. The experiment utilized a spectrophotometer to determine at which the rate that the enzyme catalyzes, by timing the change in absorbance every 15 seconds, as well as observing any colour change. The amount of enzyme added to the B-Galactosidase is increased over time, and the ONPG is set to a constant value each trial. It was determined that through the trials of testing the absorbance of the enzyme, the faster
Homework 4: Experiment Analysis 1. Do the solutions we are experimenting test positive for protein, starch, or sugar? 2. Chemical indicators are used to detect certain molecules. These are often used to test for supplements to recommend to consumers.
observed a severe iron overload in mice that were knockout for the gene encoding hepcidin . It has also been shown that hepcidin is regulated by hemojuvelin, a protein produced in the liver and whose gene expression is responsible for juvenile hemochromatosis, causing excessive accumulation of iron in different organs, mainly in the liver  and promoting the development of certain infectious diseases . The maintenance of iron levels involves regulation of iron absorption from the diet and its storage in hepatic and splenic macrophages. During absorption, iron is taken up by enterocytes, where it will bind to ferroportin or be incorporated into intracellular ferritin for storage [4, 5]. Hepcidin has been shown to have its main role in iron homeostasis, as it regulates transmembrane iron transport.
CCl4 deteriorates hepatocytes directly by altering the permeability of the plasma, lysosomal, and mitochondrial membranes through initiation of lipid peroxidation with trichloromethyl radical (CCl3•) or trichloroperoxyl radical (CCl3OO•) by the hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 oxygenase system. Oxidative stress and membrane damage in hepatocytes are mainly caused
Proteus bacilli are widely distributed in nature as saprophytes, being found in moldering animal matter, sewage, manure soil, the mammalian intestine, and human and animal body waste. They are opportunistic pathogens, commonly responsible for urinary and septic infections. The urinary tract infections involving struvite stones are characteristic. By producing urease, Proteus spp. can hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, and therefore raise urinary pH.
Enzymes produced include the function such as oxidizing or reducing, hydrolyzing and metabolic in nature. Relative amount as well as catalytic property of the various individual enzymes produced varies between species and even between strains of the same species (Outtrup and Jorgensen, 2002). Enzymes produced by bacillus species make up about 50% of the total enzyme market (Schallmey et al, 2004). The enzymes alkaline proteinase and α-amylase dominate the industrial market. Alkaline proteinase is used extensively as detergent additives and α-amylase are used in the starch industry (Tomazee and Klibanov, 1988).
The link between bacteria and ulcers was then established. After a great deal of research, it was revealed that in individuals that were infected with Helicobacter Pylori, antibodies were found in the bloodstream. Helicobacter Pylori are able to attach to cells as they go through the mucous layer of the stomach. When the bacterium enters the stomach, an enzyme called urease converts the stomach cells chemical urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme urease tends to trigger inflammation.