To use simple model system to study factors that affect the rate of the Maillard reaction Introduction: Browning is the process of becoming brown which normally referring to food. Browning has an important economic cost, causing deterioration of the value of product in the market of food. There are two type of browning reaction, one is enzyme-catalyzed and another one is non-enzymatic. Enzymatic browning is a chemical process, involving polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, and other enzymes that create melanins and benzoquinone from natural phenols, resulting in a brown color. Non-enzymatic browning is a chemical process that produces a brown color in foods without the activity of enzymes.
INTRODUCTION: α-amylases are hydrolase enzymes that are found in animals, microorganisms and plants . α-amylase (E.C.126.96.36.199) is a hydrolase enzyme that cleave the internal α-1, 4-glycosidic linkages in starch to yield products like glucose and maltose. Metal co-factor is required for its activity because it is a calcium metalloenzyme .Hydrolyses are of two types : endo-hydrolases and exo-hydrolase. Endo- hydrolases act on interior site of substrate, whereas exo-hydrolases act on terminal site . The fungal source that is mostly used for production of α-amylase are the strains of Aspergillus spp.
2. Oxidation of alkenes and their derivatives in aqueous media The oxidation of carbon–carbon double bonds by permanganate ion is an important and well-known reaction in organic chemistry, in a mechanistic as well as a synthetic prospective. Under alkaline conditions, olefins are converted into the corresponding diols in good yield,3,4 while in neutral or slightly basic solutions a-hydroxy ketones are produced.4,5 These reactions are always accompanied by a certain amount of C–C bond cleavage6 and, under acidic conditions, the cleavage products predominate.7,8 Aqueous potassium permanganate was used originally for
IDH is a cytosolic enzyme which occurs in three isoforms. The enzyme catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of Isocitrate producing alpha-ketoglutaric acid and carbon dioxide. This step of citric acid cycle is an irreversible step and hence it is carefully regulated to avoid unnecessary depletion of isocitrate. Specific mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 have been found in many cancer cells such as gliomal cancers, astrocytomas and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). These mutations produce (D)-2- hydroxyglutarate from alpha-ketoglutarate.
Experiment #7: Column Chromatography of Food Dye Arianne Jan D. Tuozo Mr. Carlos Edward B. Santos October 12, 2015 Abstract Column chromatography is the separation of mixture’s components through a column. Before proceeding with the column chromatography itself, a proper solvent system must be chosen among the different solvents. The green colored food dye is the mixture whose components are separated. The ammonia: 1-butanol (1:1) solvent was the appropriate solvent to use for the column chromatography of food dye because it exhibited the properties of a good solvent system. A total 8 colored eluents were collected.
Globin- It is a protein surrounding & protecting the heme molecule. Heme synthesis: Heme synthesis is carried out in mitochondria & cytosol of the cell involving cascade of steps :- 1) The first step occurs in mitochondria, where condensation of succinyl-CoA & glycine is carried out by enzyme ALA-synthase resulting in product formation i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid. 2) 5-aminolevulinic acid is transported to the cytosol for formation of porphobilinogen molecule. 3) After formation
The type that is formed depends on conditions like molecular weight, heating time and protein concentration (Raikos et al., 2007; Shimada and Matsushita, 1980). The gel structure is a more structured network compared to the coagulum that is a disorganized aggregation (Raikos et al., 2007). In this experiment, an egg white solution with distilled water in the ratio of 1:3 was prepared. There is no observable change in egg white solution when distilled water is added to it. As
Inside the cell, ara-C rapidly gets activated by many phosphorylation steps to form ara-CTP (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate). When this ara-CTP is incorporated into DNA/RNA, it inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis and triggers cell death. Thus DNA replication for mitosis is affected and the cells cannot divide rapidly. The first phosphorylation step is carried out by the rate-limiting enzyme Deoxycytidine
Effect of fermentation on foods: Antioxidant activity FST 5202 ASSIGNMENT 3 Prathab Kumar Periyannan Rajeswari Abstract: In this essay the effect of fermentation on the plant based food products, which has an influence on the antioxidant activity in them is studied. The components present in the food and the various factors that influence the antioxidant properties are analyzed. The effect of various components like micro-organisms, proteins, peptides, pH and temperature are also clearly studied to get a clearer view on this issue. This essay just acts as an overview of the factors. Introduction: Plant foods are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are reducing agents, which act in removing the free radicals and also have several properties like metal chelators, singlet oxygen quenchers and hydrogen donors.
E-number food additives, their chemistry and role in food Introduction The use of food additive dates back many centuries ago when people used natural food additives such as preserving meat using salt, or immersing onions and cucumber in a jar of vinegar (Gupta 2008). Food additives are substances that are added into food to improve its quality in terms of flavour, appearance and shelf life. There are many types of categories for food additives such as colouring agents, preservatives, antioxidants, flavouring enhancers, stabilizing agents and many more. All the food additives have a specific code called E numbers. They are used for keeping track of the food additives and can be found on food labels.