For galactose, it is an isomer of glucose with a hydroxyl group on carbon 4 reversed in positions and it is mostly found in carbohydrates used in cellular recognition, so it is not found in the spread. Aldehydes and ketones that have an OH group on the carbon next to the carbonyl group react with a basic solution of Cu2+ (Benedict’s reagent) to form a red orange precipitate of copper(I) oxide (CuO). Sugars that undergo this reaction are called reducing sugars and all of the monosaccharides are reducing
During the process, two molecules of ATP, and of pyruvic acid and 2 electron carrying molecules of NADH are created. It can also happen with or without oxygen. 2. The Krebs cycle - It starts when 2 molecules from the 3 carbon sugar made in glycolysis are created into a different compound. It is a central metabolic pathway with aerobic organisms that consists of a series of 9 reactions that ocur in mitochondrion.
Such sugar molecules that are not immediately used are incorporated into disaccharides and polysaccharides. Glucose which is a monosaccharide has a structure of rings. To form a glucose ring, carbon 1 bonds to the oxygen which is attached to carbon
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I activates bicarbonate by phosphorylation with ATP to form carboxyphosphate. Ammonia then reacts with carboxyphosphate to from a carbamate intermediate. A second molecule of ATP is used to phosphorylate the carbamate intermediate to form carbamoyl phosphate. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I is the first committed step of the urea cycle. As one would expect this enzyme is allosterically regulated.
The products of this stage are passed down into the next stages. The 2 molecules of pyruvate are passed down to the oxidation of pyruvate, and NADH will be used for the electron transport chain. The rest of the products, 4 ATP, ADP, and P, are used where needed in the cell. After glycolysis occurs, oxidation of pyruvate takes places in the mitochondrial matrix. During this stage,
Glycogen is then stored in the liver, lowering the blood glucose levels. This results in the blood glucose levels to peak (2) and then fall (3) as the insulin feedback mechanisms work to restore the blood glucose levels to the fasting blood glucose level
This reaction is shown below: After the production of malonyl-CoA, fatty acid biosynthesis proceeds in the following steps: 1) Transfer of acetyl group form acetyl CoA to acyl carrier protein (ACP) by the enzyme, acetyl CoA-ACP transacylase.Similarly, malonyl group of mallonyl-CoA is transferred to ACP by malonyl CoA-ACP transacylase. 2) Addition of CH3-CH2- group of acetyl-ACP to malonyl-ACP with the removal of CO2 and ACP. This reaction is catalyzed by β-keto ACP synthase. 3) Reduction of β-keto group to β-OH group by using NADPH as proton donor in a reaction catalyzed by β-keto ACP reductase. 4) Dehydration reaction between α and β carbons catalyzed by β-hydroxyacyl ACP dehydratase.
Newer method utilizes metabolic engineering for direct production of PLA by fermentation. This can be done by introducing propionate CoA-transferases gene and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene to E.coli for lactyl CoA production. This lactyl CoA by produces by gene manipulation produces poly lactic acid by fermentation. The polymer produced from this method have high quality and increased yield which makes it fit for biomedical applications. key words: biodegradable, E.coli, genetic engineering, lactic acid , lactyl CoA, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), Poly lactic acid INTRODUCTION Polylactic acid (PLA) is rigid thermoplastic polymers that have semi crystalline or totally amorphous geometry, depending on the optical purity of the polymer backbone .
If the concentration of glucose in the blood is low / below the normal range, it leads to the secretion of glycogen from the alpha cells. Glycogen will change the energy stores such as glycogen in the liver to the glucose (stimulates the breakdown of glycogen) by increasing the level of sugar in the blood(ibid).
DAG and Ca2+ together activate the production of protein kinase C to phosphorylate other proteins in cell this results in growth and differentiation in the cell. Second messengers may be involved in more than one signalling pathway.  Below figure 1B shows a pathway for second messengers DAG, IP3 and Ca2+. Figure 1B