Controlled Variables temperature, pH, sucrase + sucrose incubation time 4. Describe what is measured as an indicator of sucrase activity and why this is an indicator of sucrase activity. I believe glucose and fructose was used as an indicator because they are what produces sucrose and sucrose creates more sucrase activity. 5. Explain why denatured sucrase was used as a control.
Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
The second stage is when synthesis (Calvin Cycle) uses the energy from the light reaction and change CO2 taken from the atmosphere into sugar. The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to transform three molecules of CO2 to one molecule of a 3-carbon sugar.
Oxaloacetate is regenerated after the completion of one kreb cycle. REACTION 2: Formation of Isocitrate: The next reaction of the Kreb cycle is catalysed by acontinase enzyme. In this reaction overall two H2O molecules are generated one water molecule is removed and other water molecule is put added into another location. The overall effect of this reaction is that the shuffling of -OH group from position 3 to 4. The yield that get is isocitrate
These electron chains are oxidised, transferring all of their electrons to their carrier molecules which are embedded in the ECT membrane. NADH enter the electron transport chain. The FADH2 originate in the citric acid cycle. In the first part of this process, electrons that pass from NADH to the electron transport chain, flow through the remaining complexes. NADH is oxidized to NAD during process.
Glucose, which is a six-carbon sugar, is at that moment divided into two molecules of a three carbon sugar. The breaking down of glucose, takes place in the cell’s cytoplasm. Glucose and oxygen are produced from this breakage, and are supplied to cells by the bloodstream. Also produced by glycolysis are, 2 molecules of ATP, 2 high energy electron carrying molecules of NADH, and 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. Glycolysis happens with or without the presence of oxygen.
In gluconeogenesis, the conversion of glucose- 1, 6-phosphate to glucose is approving out by the enzyme glucose -6- phosphatase. • In the 2nd step, in glycolysis the conversion of fructose-6- phosphate to fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate is catalyzing by the enzyme phosphofructokinases. In gluconeogenesis the transformation of fructose 1, 6- bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate is catalyzing through the enzyme fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase. . • In the 3rd step, there is an alteration among pyruvate and phosphoenol pyruvate.
RUBP + CO2 3-PGA Reduction Phase: It involves two reactions. Previously encountered in glycolysis. In first reaction, phosphorylation of 3-PGA by ATP to form 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate occurs .In second reaction, 1,3- bisphosphoglycerate is reduced to glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate by NADPH. In these two reactions all NADPH and two-third of the ATP are utilized to derive Calvin cycle Both ATP and NADPH activate the chloroplast
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily. To function efficiently, amylase requires certain conditions. The effect of different sodium chloride concentrations in this on the rate of reaction of amylase will be investigated in this experiment along with the use of starch and iodine.
Additionally, there exists three domains of the enzyme namely C- terminal catalytic domain, an N- terminal regulatory domain and a tetramerization domain. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) acts as a cofactor for the enzyme activity. Hence, the regulatory action by PAH enzyme involves activation by the presence of the amino acid phenylalanine, inhibition by the cofactor Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) – dependent protein kinase helps in the phosphorylation of the amino acid serine that is present on the 16 position of the regulatory domain of the enzyme. This in turn helps in maintaining the activity of the enzyme by reducing the concentration of the phenylalanine