Glycyrrhiza Glabra Case Study

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Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (liquorice), considered a troublesome perennial weed, has been increasingly appreciated as an important medicinal plant. Particularly, its rhizomes and roots have been widely used in traditional medicine due to their renowned therapeutic properties, throughout the centuries. However, irrational harvesting of wild liquorice plants has rendered the cultivation of the species of major importance. In this review, all the aspects related with its cultivation practices and chemical composition of the species are presented. Particular interest is given on glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin which is the most abundant bioactive compound present in cultivated liquorice roots and is responsible for most of the therapeutic and…show more content…
In 2005, the international trade of liquorice was estimated at 42 million US$, being the main importing countries of liquorice roots: the United States of America (USA), Japan, Republic of Korea and Israel, whereas the leading importing countries of liquorice extracts were Germany, USA, Netherlands, Japan and China. China is also the leading exporting country in liquorice roots, followed by Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, whereas in terms of liquorice extracts USA, France, Israel and China are the most representative exporting countries…show more content…
glabra is able to fix N2 from the atmosphere in symbiosis with bacteria. Mesorhizobium strains have been reported to induce effective nodules on G. glabra and G. uralensis species. However, apart from Mesorhizobium bacteria, which are true symbionts, other sporadic bacteria belonging to the Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Paenibacillus genera have been also identified and classified as having weak, infrequent or no N2 fixation ability [19]. 3. Morphological description Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) is a perennial plant with a height of 0.7-2 m and erect growth [5, 20]. The plant develops a deep root system that can reach over 1 m in depth [11]. Its root system consists of well-developed horizontal stolons and rhizomes [21], while the buds on the underground stolons can expand to form new stems [11, 21]. The bark of the roots and rhizomes present a brownish green to dark brown colour [5]. Leaves are pinnate [21], and consist of 9-17 alternate oblong to lanceolate leaflets [5]. The flowers are small (1 cm long), have purple to whitish blue colour, while its pods (2-3 cm) are flat, have an oblong to linear shape [5, 21], have a smooth surface [11], turn brown at maturity and contain 1-7 seeds [5, 21]. Lastly, seeds present a dark colour, a reniform shape and small size, with a diameter of about 2.5 mm and a thousand seeds weight of 6.2 g [21,

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