Lvandula, Rosamary). The subfamily Nepetoideae has highly medicinal value, producing aromatic oils, especially menthol often used in cough medicine ( Heywood et al 2007). Recently Salvia officinalis (Sage) used as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic, digestive, diuretic in UK and it can be used for night sweats, hot flushes, digestive problems, oral health, memory loss(http://www.herbfacts.co.uk/pages/herb-file/sage.php). In the medicinal area in UK Prunella vulgaris (self heal) used for treating wounds (http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/prunella-vulgaris-selfheal). Moreover, some species are used as aromatic herb for cooking such as Salvia, mint (menthe), Oregano (Origanum), Thyme (Thymus), lavender (Lavandula), Rosemary (Rosmarinus)(Heywood et al
Flowers greenish, solitary, cyathiform or campanulate, with a brown pubescent peduncle; 6 sepals, 6 corolla lobes. Flowers are hairy outside, 8 mm long and 6-parted. Flowers are borne singly or in clusters in leaf axils near the tips of branches. Flowers are small, bisexual, off-white, bell-shaped, and measure about 10 mm in diameter. There are several flushes of flowers throughout the year.
While n-hexane seed extract and ethanol seed extract showed negative results. Both alkaloid and flavonoid have potential for antimicrobial activities. That is the reason why ethyl acetate seed extract exhibit inhibitory ability while ethanol does not. This goes along with our result which shows ethanol extract does not have any antimicrobial activities. Flavonoid causes leakage of the bacteria cell material by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane permeability (M. Asif & E. Khodadadi, 2013).
Adenium is come from the subfamily of Apocynoideae (Endress and Bruyns, 2000). There are few varieties of Adenium species, such as Adenium boehmianum, Adenium multiflorum, Adenium oleifolium, Adenium swazicum and Adenium obesum. Adenium boehmianum is commonly can be found in southern Angola and northern Namibia. This species of succulent scrub can grow until 1.5 m tall and it also has a swollen stem. The leaves are 80 to 140 mm long and 50 to 80 mm broad.
Malassezia sp. is the causative agent of dandruff, which is the most commercially exploited disease by the cosmetic industry. This study is aimed at the isolation of the different species of Malassezia from young adults in Coimbatore region. The predominant species isolated was M.symbodialis. Key Words: Malassezia, dandruff Introduction Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis are common hyperproliferative scalp disorders associated with Malassezia globosa.
2.9.1 Botanical description: Phyllanthus amarus is a plant of the family Euphorbiaceae and has about approximately 800 species which are found in tropical and subtropical countries of the world (Mazumder et al., 2006; Tahseen et al., 2013). It is a branching annual glabrous herb which is 30-60 cm high and has slender, leaf-bearing branchlets, distichous leaves which are subsessile elliptic-oblong, obtuse, rounded base. The name ‘Phyllanthus’ means “leaf and flower” and named so because of its appearance where flower, fruit and leaf appears fused (Kumar et al., 2011). Flowers are yellowish, whitish or greenish, auxiliary, male flowers in groups of 1-3 whereas females are solitary. Fruits are depressed-globose like smooth capsules present underneath the branches and seeds are trigonous, pale brown with longitudinal parallel ribs on the back (Itoro et al., 2013).
Carotene pigment is higher in dark green leaves (0.795 mg/gm) in comparison of light green leaves, while in fruits round and golden brown color contains 0.951 mg/gm and long and light green fruits having 0.578 mg/gm. Xanthophyll is maximum in dark green leaves 0.438 mg/gm, light green leaves, light green and oblong fruits, dark golden brown and round fruits contains 0.211, 0.256, 0.379 mg/gm
JACKFRUIT Jackfruit is a tropical fruit which belongs to the family moraceae and genus Artocarpus and its scienctific name is Artocarpus heterophyllus. It is native from India and mainly grown in Asia, Africa and South America. The fruits are the largest tree-borne fruits of widely varying size, of length 22 to 90 cm, diameter of 13 to 50 cm and weigh from 3 to 60 kg. They are oblong or round in shape. The unripe fruits are green and turns yellow to light brown with strong and fruity smell when ripen.
The flower perigone lobes 5, which shows variety in sizes between the lobes with a 13.5 to 19.5 cm long and 15 to 24 cm wide. Upper part of the lobes is covered with white warts with brick red background. There are 8 to 9 well-spaced rows of incorporation of white warts on perigone lobes. The small and circular diaphragm shows the size within the range of 5.6 to 7.5 cm wide. The diameter across the diaphragm is
Recently, E. Longifolia has received considerable attention due to its pharmacological importance, such as aphrodisiac, antimalarial, antiulcer, and antimicrobial properties (Bhat and Karim, 2010). This plant is also listed in five herbal of focus in National Key Economic Areas in Malaysia (PEMANDU, 2013). Scientific studies on this plant species have encompassed its chemical fingerprinting, medicinal usage and molecular markers. However, the genetic diversity study of this plant species is still in its infancy (Osman et al., 2003). Molecular markers have proven to provide a precise assessment and identification of plant cultivars (Lee et al., 2011) as compared to biochemical and phenotypic markers which are facing problems from low polymorphism (Kalendar et al., 1999).