Goal Orientation Research

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The original definition of goal orientation was a situated orientation for action in achievement tasks (Ames, 1992; Dweck, 1986). In later on researchers discussed that goal orientation is not just focusing on what people are attempting to achieve, but it defines on why and how people are trying to achieve various objectives (Anderman & Maehr, 1994). Goal Orientation is one of the interesting part of motivation when it comes to learning. There are various investigation on the goal orientation. Several research investigate it as a “state” (e.g., through experimental manipulations or questionnaires that focused on engagement in a specific task) or as a “trait” (e.g., through questionnaires and interviews that focused on cross-situational engagement…show more content…
Ames, 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Elliot & Church, 1997; Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996; Maehr & Midgley, 1991; Midgley, Arunkumar, & Urdan, 1996). These researchers have examined and defined goal orientation in various terms. Most of the model propose two general goal orientations, which concern on the reason or aim of an individual when approaching and engaging in a learning process. Mastery, learning, task goal orientation, stand for similar understanding where learners are trying to develop new skills and gain in depth learning to improve their competence. For performance goal orientation learners are focusing on their performance of gaining positive judgement or public recognition and avoiding negative judgment, they are focusing on demonstrating their ability and skills to…show more content…
In contrast endorsement of performance goal orientation commonly associated to negative affect in events which involve difficulty or challenges, they rather use of surface rather than deep learning strategies. Nevertheless, there are several studies that did not find such negative physiognomies. In study did by Kaplan & Maehr (2007), found that the relation between performance and mastery goals is not dichotomous; students’ are not either mastery or performance oriented. Students can have both goal or they can be highly oriented toward one goal while not so much to the other; or they can be highly oriented to one of the goal. And in another study did by Wolters et al., (1996) endorsement of performance goal orientation positively predicted students’ task value, self-efficacy, and cognitive and self-regulatory strategy use. Often, performance goals orientation has been associated with a maladaptive pattern of cognition, affect, and behavior (Review on Ames, 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988). However, unlike the researches concerning mastery goals, research concerning performance goals are inconsistent.

In studies conducted by Maehr and Midgley and their colleagues (e.g., Anderman & Midgley, 1997; Kaplan & Midgley,

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