(Vygotsky, 1978 : 86). Within the general cognitive heading, the cognitive developmentalists attribute these effects to processes outlined by scholars such as Piaget (1926) and Vygotsky (1978). Vygotsky’s (1978) work stressed benefits of collaborating with a more expert peer because what a student carries out jointly with another could be incorporated into his or her individual repertoire. Piaget’s work stressed the benefits of cognitive conflicts among students that expose students’ misconceptions and lead to higher-quality understandings. Work from the cognitive elaboration perspectives asserts that learners must engage in some manner of cognitive restructuring of new materials in order to learn them.
O’Malley et al (1985, p. 22) commented that the “considerable confusion” surrounds the term. Some writers use the terminology such as learning behaviors (Politzer and McGroarty, 1985; Wesche, 1977), tactics (Seliger, 1984), and techniques (Stern, 1992). The preferred solution to the problem is simply to refer to all of these as strategies. Oxford, however explained that a strategy is positive and helpful to a learner if it relates well to the L2 and FL task at hand, if it fits the student’s learning style preferences to one degree or another, and the student uses the strategy effectively and links it with other relevant strategies. These types of strategies “make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations” (Oxford, 1990, p.8).
First the quality of learner`s work is taken into consideration because it involves the teacher`s “deliberate, sustained and explicit reflection” and second the resulting data are used to formulate learning goals. Taken this definition into account, different purposes for this kind of assessment can be envisaged. These purposes range from providing information to outside agencies, satisfying
For the second dimension, the use of input data during task performance is discussed. Having help from the input data means that students use, for example, the picture of what they are talking or the text they have read as background (Ellis, 2003; Prabhu, 1987). In the final part of this phase, some pairs or groups present their oral or written products. Feedback is only given on advantages of the product. The effect of this session can be enhanced if the errors are not corrected publicly (Prabhu,
Summary The study was conducted to investigate if greater self-awareness in learning styles affects ones’ performance. To measure learning styles, the author conducted various studies and developed Koh’s Learning Styles Profiler (KLSP). Based on the study conducted, it was seen that there was a positive relationship between learning styles and performance and awareness in learning styles affects academic performance. This is based on the rationale that by understanding one’s learning style; learners would then gain a deeper understanding on their effective learning behaviors to develop strategies to enhance learning performance. Theoretical Perspective(s) The adaptation by Claxton & Murrell (1987) on Curry’s onion model was adopted as a
Part 3 (60%): General Essay What are considered to be the key purposes of assessment and how might these purposes support or impede pupils learning? The role of assessment in teaching and learning Introduction Studies over many years have shown that assessment is a main ingredient for teachers to improve their practice and enhance the learners’ achievements. For most of the teachers and learners, the term “assessment” is often correlated with “testing”. Testing is a method to determine a student’s ability to complete certain tasks or demonstrate the understanding of a skill or knowledge of content. On the other hand, Lambert and Lines (2000) go further to suggest that assessment is a constant ongoing process rather than a onetime thing and
It is a map of how to achieve the “outputs” or desired student performance, in which appropriate learning activities and assessments are suggested to make it more likely that students achieve the desired results. (p. 6) In reality, the three key components – curriculum (knowledge, what to taught), pedagogy (how to teach) and assessment (how to assess) – are not always valued fairly (Bernstein, 1977), especially in the context of this study where the assessment inherently “washbacks” on pedagogy – or more simply put where testing influences teaching (Cheng, 1997; Andrews & Fullilove,
The first chapter of this study provided an introduction notifying the significance, purpose, and questions surrounding the problem proposed in the study. Limitations, delimitations, and operational definitions of terms are provided as well. Chapter Two reviews the significant literature in education concerning professional development strategies and teachers’ success. Several themes emerge including: (a) the influence of CPD strategies on teachers’ success, (b) professional development as a key step in educational settings, (c) some details on some of the professional development strategies. Chapter Three provides the methodology of the study.
With this research, it is hoped that the type of motivation of the students and how motivation impacts student in second language learning could be found out. The analysis on the findings which were obtained from questionnaires and interview done by the subjects to strengthened the research. The result of the findings was the main focus of the next chapter. SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE SHEET Subject
1. Inquiry based teaching and learning 1.1. Definition of Inquiry based teaching and learning Inquiry has been defined in a number of ways, ranging from simple descriptions of students actively guiding their own learning with the teacher acting as facilitator to more elaborated lists of actions for the teacher, student, and curriculum (e.g., NRC, 1996, 20). A number of research findings concluded that inquiry based teaching is a more effective way to help students learn compared to the traditional didactic teaching approach. However, despite these findings, critiques of inquiry-based teaching have persisted, in part because of disagreements among researchers about what features define inquiry (Furtak et al., 2012).