Goiter Research Paper

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Erika Oregon & Christian Torres
Mr. Bagdasarian
28 November 2015
Biology 121 Research Paper


The disease we were assigned is the condition that results in a Goiter. A goiter can be defined as the swelling of the neck caused by an enlargement of the Thyroid gland. This condition is quite overt as the swelling is obviously visible at the base of the neck. Goiter may occur in different types, therefore having different causes to their development.
The Thyroid gland utilizes iodide by using it in conjunction to produce Thyroxin. The thyroid gland is also the only organ in the body that uptakes and stores iodide in the body. One of the most common causes to a Goiter would include Iodine deficiency in the human body. A deficiency in iodine
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Not all goiters will develop signs and symptoms. Some of the most common types include swelling that is visible at the base of the neck. Also, when large goiters start to develop its only obvious that the surrounding anatomical structures in the neck such as the trachea and esophagus begin to feel some pressure. This may cause a tight feeling in throat area, coughing, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, and stridor (a wheezing sound that comes from a disturbance in air flow in and out of the trachea). In hypothyroidism, general processes start slowing down. The patients might find themselves not having enough energy, skin tone may get dry, and mental processes disruptions like depression and…show more content…
Iodine-123 is harmless to thyroid cells whereas Iodine-121 will destroy Thyroid cells. Since Iodine-123 is harmless to thyroid cells, it is the most commonly isotope used to take pictures of an existing thyroid condition. The isotope I-131 is also used for imaging but it is rarely used since it has a destructive effect on the thyroid cells. Other imaging methods include a Thyroid Ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI and PET Scan. The pathophysiology of a goiter in hypothyroidism would occur to a disruption of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone/Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. An unbalance in these hormones would cause changes in the function and structure of the gland. In the setting where there isn’t a sufficient amount of Thyroxin synthesized by the gland, there is an increase in TSH production. Over production of TSH causes hyperplasia of the gland just to match normal thyroid levels. This would then cause a goiter to form. When the goiter is grown significantly, pressure is put on the esophagus and trachea, causing respiratory
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