Patients have an increased risk of development of gonadal tumours, most prevalent of which is gonadoblastoma. Pursuant to researchers, approximately 30 per cent of patients develop gonadal tumours. However, some researches found figures as high as 45 per cent. The risk is seen to increase with age. Diagnosis of pure gonadal dysgenesis Diagnosis of pure gonadal dysgenesis is done by requesting the blood karyotype of a patient and investigating the patient’s blood hormone levels.
Gonorrhoea, and postoperative infections, as HIV, are increasingly becoming untreatable because of antimicrobial resistance3,20. Gonorrhea is one of the most common STIs in Zimbabwe and there is rising prevalence of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance21. One study noted that although most men presenting with urethral discharge were initiated on fluoroquinolone-based antimicrobial therapy, approximately 1 in 16 gonococci tested was resistant to this antimicrobial class. During this study, norfloxacin formed part of the empiric treatment of STIs in Zimbabwe, yet the prevalence of microbiologically predicted fluoroquinolone-resistant gonorrhea was above the WHO's 5% resistance threshold for changing first-line therapy21. Mechanisms of Transmission and control of STIs in Zimbabwe Unprotected sex puts one at risk of STIs.
Related results were also reported by Knapp et al7 and Sparkling et8. Some research workers have also concluded that one in 10 women experience of PID, of which N. gonorrhoeae is the chief agent in 40% of all reported cases10,11. In Swedish populations, the gonococcus was isolated in 10% to 30% of patients, whereas at an American city hospital, N. gonorrhoeae was recovered from most of the divested women examined.12 In our study incidence of gonococcal antibodies in infertile females having abnormal cervical findings were insignificant statistically. M. hominis is commonly found in the genital
20% from type 1 due to oral-genital sexual practices 2) Describe the process of sterility from gonorrheal and Chlamydial infections. In females, complete obstruction of both tubes by scar tissue completely blocks the transport of a fertilized ovum through the tubes and leads to sterility. In males, an
Conventional prophylaxis is recommended only for the prevention of gonorrhea or gonococcal infections in newborn infants with contact history. Antibiotics for specific pathogens may be considered in special cases. For example, penicillin G is used to prevent streptococcal infection in a group of infants in a defined nursery, and to prevent intestinal toxicity or pathogenic E. coli infection by using oral Carbendazim or vancomycin (Warnke, Becker, Podschun, Sivananthan, Springer, Russo & Sherry, 2009). The instruments, utensils and articles used in neonates shall be guided by the following principles: 1. Medical devices, appliances and articles used in surgery shall be sterilized.
In order to compare the adjuvant activity of compound mucosal immune adjuvant (cMIA), two novel compound adjuvants (cMIA I and cMIA II) were prepared and mixed with Newcastle-disease (ND) vaccine. The humoral and cellular immune responses were determined by means of hemagglutination inhibition test, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemical examination and histological examination. The results showed that two compound adjuvants could promote CD3+ T lymphocytes, IgA secreting cells, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL) and Mast cells formation and enhance serum and content antibody titer. The best adjuvant activity of cMIA II in promoting cellular immunity and cMIA I in enhancing humoral immunity occurred in whole immune period. Based on good synergistic effects of their components, two cMIAs would be expected as new-type mucosal immune adjuvants for mucosal immune.
While, the anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by two different models; the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the carrageenan-induced peritonitis in which the levels of total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil count, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) were measured in the peritoneal exudates. The results revealed significant protection in all the treated groups; however, the combination of EVOO with IBU at its therapeutic dose showed superiority over the two compounds when used separately. Conclusion: Using extra virgin olive oil with the therapeutic dose of ibuprofen showed synergistic effect in controlling the cardinal signs of acute inflammation rather than using the NSAIDs
Emergency situations like natural calamities and chemical and biowarfare, where prevention and clinical management are very important to control infectious disease outbreak, there is a need for an equipment that acts faster to control the morbidity and mortality resulting from infectious disease. An autoinjector would be very useful in such situations. Autoinjector with an antibacterial combination which can act against various gram negative and gram positive bacteria including anaerobes would be very useful for the immediate administration in emergency and critical situations like trauma and serious injuries.The synergistic effect of selected antibiotic combinations (1) amikacin with cefazolin and (2) amikacin with vancomycin were tested in vitro for their synergistic effect using disc diffusion technique and double disc synergy test. Cefazolin is a βeta lactum antibiotic, belonging to first generation cephalosporin, have action mainly against gram positive bacteria. Hence its combination with aminoglycoside, amikacin will be a better combination.
Although antibiotics are basically current against bacteria, compound increase is locked in a co-evolutionary battle with natural bacterial compounds, involuntarily promotion the improvement of resistance. Bacteria have found a host of mechanisms to circumvent antibiotic killing and transmit resistance, that until recently were thought to impose a significant burden on overall evolutionary fitness, allowing susceptible organisms to ultimately outcompete their resistant counterparts. Mostly, these mechanisms can be gathered as either innate resistance or, of more concern to modern clinical and agriculture practice, acquired
TREATMENT AND CLINICAL MANAGEMENT The only reliable way to prevent early onset neonatal menigitis currently is intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), administration of antibiotics to the mother during delivery. It has been proved that intravenous penicillin or ampicillin administered for ≥4 hours before delivery to GBS colonized women are very effective at preventing vertical transmission of GBS from mother to baby. Cefazolin, clindamycin, and vancomycin are used in penicillin-allergic mothers. Neonatal mortality is declining globally. According to UNICEF, worldwide neonatal mortality rate fell by 47 per cent between 1990 and 2015 from 36 to 19 deaths per 1,000 live births.