Proactive Coping Theory

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Personality is a set of enduring traits and characteristics that relate to a person’s emotions, motivations, interpersonal interactions, and attitudes (Simmering, 2004). Personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior. Traits contribute to individual differences in behavior, consistency of behavior over time, and stability of behavior across situations. Personality traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person, that is, their readiness to think or act in a similar fashion in response to a variety of different stimuli or situations (Carver & Scheiver, 2000). According to Gordon Allport’s theory, traits are determining…show more content…
Susan Folkman and Richard Lazarus (2000) define coping as "constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as task or demanding. Simply put, coping is an activity we do to seek and apply solutions to stressful situations or problems that emerge because of our stressors. Actually, the term "coping" is more associated with "reactive coping", because in general, we see coping as a response to a stressor. On the other hand, there 's also what we call "proactive coping", wherein the coping response is aimed at preventing a possible encounter with a future…show more content…
Personality and coping are involved directly or indirectly in the production and maintenance of various kinds of adjustments (Sinyder & Ford, 2011,). Thus, personality traits could influence the types of coping style used. In terms of daily situations and problems, that individuals face, judging coping by its effects on outcomes may do a disservice to the efforts that individuals make to cope with difficult, intractable and unrelenting conditions of life (Folkman, 2009,). The presence of distress may indicate that adaptive coping processes are taking place. Personality influences stress exposure, reactivity, and appraisals, it is impossible to disentangle the effects of personality on coping from the effects of stress on coping. Personality may also influence the range, order, and persistence of coping strategy use (Vollrath,
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