Cohesion In Discourse Analysis

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1. Scope of the study
Discourse analysis is the analysis of the written and spoken discourse. In other words discourse analysis refers to studies of the sentence in its linguistic context (Simensen, 2007: p.59). There must be cohesion that gives any text meaning and unity through cohesive ties. It links between words in any text. In other words, cohesion is what gives a text texture through cohesive ties. There are two types of cohesive ties: lexical and grammatical ties. 2. Objectives of the study / research questions
This research aims to find answers for the following questions:
• What are the types of cohesion that are found commonly in the editorial articles?
• What is the use difference between lexical and grammatical cohesion?
• What
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Halliday and Hasan's model of lexical cohesion is based on division of two categories: reiteration and collocation (Tanskanen, 2006: p.32).

Reiteration includes for Halliday a number of relations such as synonymy (sound – noise), antonymy (awake – asleep), hyponymy (tree – oak), superordinates (blackbirds – birds), meronymy (tree – trunk), co-hyponymy (oak – pine), and co-meronymy (trunk – branch) (Tanskanen, 2006: p.36). Repetition of the same word (mushroom –mushroom), the use of a general word (We all kept quiet. That seemed the best move.) (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: p.282–283), and Part-whole (tyre-car).

Synonymy is the identity of senses of two or more lexical items. In case of synonymy, lexical cohesion results from the choice of a lexical item that is synonymous with a preceding one (Gocic, 2012:
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The main function of conjunctions is to relate clauses in a cohesive way (Gocic, 2012: p.93). There are four types of conjunctions:
a) Additive: and, or, furthermore, similarly, and in addition.
b) Adversative: but, however, on the other hand, and nevertheless.
c) Causal: so, consequently, for this reason, and it follows from this.
d) Temporal: then, after that, an hour later, finally, and last.
(Brown & Yule, 1983: p.191). Reference is based on the exploration of the lexico-grammatical environment of a text to look elsewhere to get a fuller picture and to make complete sense of a word or structure (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: p.31). Referential cohesion plays a special role in creating cohesive ties between the elements that can be difficult or even impossible to interpret if a single sentence is taken out of context (Nunan, 1993: p.21). The study of grammatical cohesion in students’ essays requires the retrieval of the information necessary for interpretation from the given context. This refers to endophoric reference. An exophoric relationship plays no part in textual cohesion (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: p.18). “Exophoric reference directs the receiver ‘out of ‘the text and into an assumed shared world”
(McCarthy, 1991:
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