Grammatical Metaphor Analysis

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2.2 Grammatical metaphor
Grammatical metaphor is one of the most interesting theoretical notions developed by Halliday (1985/1994) within Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG). Functional Grammar defines metaphors as variations in the expression of meaning rather than just variations in the use of words. Functional Grammar looks at metaphors from a different perspective, not asking “how is this word used?” but “how is this meaning expressed?” or “how is grammar structured to make the text effective in the achievement of purpose?” There is a kind of transference going on, the transfer of representation between different grammatical categories. The difference in the message is the kind of meaning variation which Halliday (1994) calls Grammatical
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Matthiessen (1995) discusses grammatical metaphor as a way of expanding the semantic potential of the system; also Thompson (1996) defines it as the expression of a meaning through a lexical- grammatical form which originally evolved to express a different kind of meaning. Halliday (1985: 1994) referred to grammatical metaphor (GM) as the non congruent ways of encoding language. Congruent forms are the natural ways that language encodes the meaning they express; the non –congruent ways of encoding language are viewed as metaphorical expression or grammatical metaphor. In this sense, grammatical metaphor is defined by Eggins (2004) as “the situations where meanings typically
(congruently) realized by one type of language pattern get realized by other less typical or metaphorical (noncongruent) linguistic
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IGM is the first type of grammatical metaphor, which is concerned with the construction of an alternative view of reality, by means of rearranging lexciogrammatical features.

IGM is a powerful resource in the grammar of a language, by which the expression of ideational meanings such as processes, qualities and entities is stretched in important ways beyond their default encodings as clauses, adjectives and nouns or noun phrases. Halliday has offered a model displaying that certain forms (especially noun phrases) are more likely to be used as metaphorical forms than any other types of

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