In comparison with Allerton and Tesniére, Herbst supports the idea of verb’s central role in determining the structure of clauses, but at the same time the verb “takes formal considerations as its starting point” [Herbst 2010:183]. Allerton (1982) and Emons (1974, 1978) were the first who suggested “the first two models that offer a fairly comprehensive treatment of English verb valency” [Herbst 2010:183], but at the same both these approaches have diversities. In terms of English syntax Herbst and Shüller (2008) created a new approach which present a combination of traditional grammar and valency theory. In the valency theory verb takes a central position, as it determines “how many other elements have to occur in order to form a grammatical sentence” [Herbst 2004: xxiv], e.g. in active declarative clause some verbs require only one element, while other verbs may have two or more elements.
This research uses Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) by Halliday to analyze the ideology that relies on the transitivity analysis found in Emma Watson’s speech for the HeForShe campaign. SFL is to be assumed as an approach that helps a researcher in analyzing meanings that are made through the language that is used in everyday communication (Eggins, 2004:1). This approach can also see how language works, how they are produce, how they different people interpret them, and how the culture gives value to them (Eggins, 2004:1). Halliday also explored his research in linguistic analysis and proposed the development of a detailed functional grammar of modern English that shows how simultaneous strands of meanings are expressed in clause structures (Eggins, 2004:2). Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) can be said to be systemic because humans can produce languages in several ways (Halliday, 1994).
Linguistically, the commas placed in the sentences change nature of relative clause. On the basis of this technique, relative clause has been divided into two categories. 1) Restrictive clause 2) Nonrestrictive clause Both of them basically convey two separate independent ideas in which one is specific while the other is non-specific. Relation of Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase with a Relative Clause: Relative clauses cannot stand alone. These are unfinished thoughts and should be combined to an independent clause to turn into a whole sentence.
Mold hypotheses, such as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, underestimate that language is a mold regarding which classifications of thought are thrown though shroud hypotheses received by the great universalism assume that dialect is a shroud or the dress of thought gathering the requirements of the standard thought classes of its speakers, in particular the same thought can be expressed in different ways. Universalists talk about that one can say whatever one wishes to say in any languages, and that whatever one expresses in one dialect can simply be interpreted into an alternate. Chandler (1994) likewise contends that, also, there P. Birjandi, S. Sabah - A Review of the Language-Thought Debate: Multivariant Perspectives 57 exists a related perspective held by, say, Behaviorists, to notice among others, on the premise of which dialect and thought are esteemed as indistinguishable. In line with this stance, intuition is respected to be completely and altogether phonetic; that is to say, there is no non-verbal thought, and no interpretation from thought to dialect happens. Putting it this way, thought is seen as completely controlled by
“Phonological rules are part of communication through language, whether spoken or written, and knowing what they are and why they exist can help us better understand our world” (Smith 1995). There are two common types of phonological rules, these are universal (Assimilation) and non-universal (Dis-assimilation) rules. “Assimilation is a rule that makes two or more neighboring segments more similar by making the segments share some feature” (Jun, 1995). While, dissimilation is a rule that change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar. “Deletion in English Language is the dropping of sound that takes place especially because morphemes are put close to each other and also because of their occurances in unstressed syllables or in rapid speech” (Ramelan,1977, p. 174)..
Chapter 2 Literature Survey 2.1 General Word sense disambiguation was one of the important problem during the early days of machine translation. WSD is the task to determine the proper meaning of word and use it in particular context. WSD can be considered as classication problem because the word senses can be the classes.Moreover the automatic classication techniques can be used to recognize and assign each occurrence of the word to classes from external knowledge sources. 2.2 Literature Review 1. Gaona, Gelbukh A Bandyopadhyay advocate to use knowledge based appraches for better word sense disambiguation.
It is believed that conceptual metaphor is one of the “cognitive devices” that motivate the semantic structures of idioms, the general meanings of which are established by the “conventional knowledge”, and therefore the motivation seems rather cognitive than linguistic by nature (Kövecses, 2010). Besides that, Nguyen (2016) pointed out that one conceptual metaphor can be indicated by more than one idiomatic expression in language.
The former can be broken down into Descriptive Translation Studies and Translation Theory, which in turn are divided into Product, Process and Function oriented respectively (in: Baker 2005: 278). Focusing on the branch named Translation Theory, it is necessary to point out that this is a blanket term. This means that Translation Theory covers many definitions, methods and other translation related issues. As Newmark noted, Translation Theory states and clearly defines what are the most appropriate methods of translation of various texts belonging to different categories (Newmark 1991: 19). Newmark (1981:38) claims that “translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language.
More recently, pragmatic competence is considered to be “an understanding of the relationship between form and context that enables us, accurately and appropriately, to express and interpret intended meaning” (Murray, 2010, p. 293). The definition of pragmatics competence regarding the importance of analyzing language through negotiation of meaning, provide us with a
al, 2007: 6). Among different trends in cognitive linguistics which try to explore meaning construction in the mind of humans, Conceptual Blending Theory, also known as Conceptual Integration Theory is one of them. The theory, first proposed by Gill Fauconnier and Mark Turner (1998; 2002), is an approach deriving from two major tradition within cognitive semantics, i.e. Mental Space Theory and Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Evans & Green, 2006: 400). The pivotal affirmation of conceptual blending theory is that meaning construction involves integration of structure which gives rise to more than the sum of its constituents.