Learning to constructivist is an active process aiming to develop learners’ new ideas based on their current and experience and knowledge (Brandon & All, 2010). Constructivism as a learning theory centers its principles on helping the learning process unlike controlling it as in the view of behaviorism (Lober, 2006). Key contributors to the development of this theoretical approach include Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Ernst von Glasersfeld. (Liu & Chen, 2010). The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning.
“What” is it we want our students to learn (DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, Many, & Mattos, 2016). To begin this process, the principal must establish what he/or she is trying to accomplish in their school. The district, and school-level leaders must provide guidelines, resources, training, examples, and feedback to assist teachers in sharpening their understanding of what is essential that their students be able to do and know (DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, Many, & Mattos, 2016). You can’t implement or introduce when you don’t have an idea of what you want to implement. An example of this is Kathryn in the book “The Five Dysfunctions of Team”, by Patrick Lencioni.
However, research has shown that assessment instruments need be to appropriate to the materials or subject being taught. It is important that the assessment instruments match the learning objectives of the module. If an assessor does not have skills, training, experience to use a particular assessment it is unluckily that they method they will use to assess will be effective, hence why is it important to match the assessment instruments with the delivery method. In sum, Healey (2000) emphasised that those who teach in higher education institutions are duty bound “to learn how to adopt a scholarly approach to teaching and how to collect and present rigorous evidence of their effectiveness as teachers” (p. 170). Therefore, it is important that Facilitator use assessment strategies that they are both confident and matches the learner’s learning styles.
The author’s objective was to implement Elementary and Secondary Education (ESEA) Flexibility plans. In line with this, educators play a challenging task in molding not just the mental capacity of their students but also their eagerness for learning which will further assist them to enhance their preparedness for college and career. It can be premised that teaching college and career preparedness to high school student should not be solely entrusted to teachers but most especially to school counselors since the latter may have practiced up-to-date strategies and approaches to career counseling through test results interpretation. Relatively, the research study of Mattern, Radunzel and Westrick (2015) relates to the importance of developing academic competency benchmarks to facilitate academic and career decision making. The researchers averred that the conceptualization of indicators or benchmarks of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) readiness may be regarded as valuable in educating students about the degree of knowledge and skills that they need to achieve to have a probable chance of advancement in first-year STEM courses.
This new approach to education depends on critical thinking. We must be consciously considering our existence amongst other people and nature. Problem-posing education will only succeed if the teacher-student relationship is amended (Freire 323). That being said, teachers must realize that they can teach and be taught while the students can learn and teach through current
But when facing higher level of education, we are approached with countless challenges for learning from different aspects, it is then we adapt from our experiences and instincts of what level is required of us. “If a student fails to understand some aspects of a lesson in class, he or she must possess the self-awareness and strategic knowledge to take corrective action” (Zimmerman, 2000, p65). As Zimmerman exclaimed that we ought to be “self-aware”, to be self-aware is to comprehend and perceive our particular strengths and weaknesses to face these issues and adjust to be successful in tertiary education. As Zimmerman says, “this perspective focused instead on what students need to know about them self in order to manage their limitations during efforts to learn…” (Zimmerman, 2000). There are limitations for myself which are essential to be self-aware and obligatory to be deliberated in order to complete higher education.
Teachers are being placed in the center of how schools function and are being asked to aid in crucial decisions about the academic direction of the school (Warren, 2016). Research by York-Barr and Duke (2004), states “teacher leadership roles range from assisting with the management of schools to evaluating educational initiatives and facilitating professional learning communities” (p. 1). While teacher leadership is evolving, the perceptions that teachers have regarding themselves as leaders has not truly been uncovered. This literature review is an attempt to highlight the research surrounding teacher leadership. It begins with the foundations of teacher leadership which includes the history of teacher leadership, the evolving definition of teacher leadership, and finally a summary of current teacher leadership development programs.
The first chapter of this study provided an introduction notifying the significance, purpose, and questions surrounding the problem proposed in the study. Limitations, delimitations, and operational definitions of terms are provided as well. Chapter Two reviews the significant literature in education concerning professional development strategies and teachers’ success. Several themes emerge including: (a) the influence of CPD strategies on teachers’ success, (b) professional development as a key step in educational settings, (c) some details on some of the professional development strategies. Chapter Three provides the methodology of the study.
Constructivism defines knowledge as constructions of experiences; human not just receives knowledge, but forming, creating, finding, and developing their own knowledge (Mularsih, 2009, p.41). Mularsih said that, based on constructivism, the most important thing of learning process is students’ activeness in constructing knowledge through interaction in learning experiences (2009, p.42). Constructivism opposes passive learning; classroom should be a community of learning engaged in an activity, reflection, and creative experiences (Brummelen, 2002, p.32). Brummelen (2002, p.32) also stated that teacher should facilitate autonomous learning, not just supply the material or
Only with such mind set shift in the intent of education, can the assessment move towards the needed balance between assessment for learning and assessment of learning. In the operational sense, government and schools needs to be willing to direct resources to the building of assessment literacy of educators, allows for the effective harness of learning through suitable assessment design. By equipping educators with the needed assessment competencies, there can be significant changes to both national standardised examinations and school-based assessments to truly assess competencies for the future. In addition, drivers of education (key personnel such principals) need be believe in the need for such reforms and actively translate this to actual implementation in schools. As with the dialectic relationship between assessment and learning, this would then change the way students learn, further reinforcing the assessment